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Time line

Ancient History

Rulers of Sindh (pre-muslim invasion)

Aryan Sindh

Muslim Invasion

Dynasties of Sindh (post-muslim invasion)

British Rule of Sindh

Women in Modern Sindh

Works Cited

Ancient History
The first known settlements of Sindh go back to 7000 BCE; the settlers were aboriginal tribes. Around 4000 BCE people from the Iranian plateau, Dravidians, invaded Sindh and created farming settlements. As they grew in numbers, the Dravidians settlements lead to Urbanization and eventually the Indus Valley Civilization. Some of the first towns in Sindh are Kot Diji and Amri. The people of Kot Diji were advanced, having an almost pictographic script, which as of now remains un-deciphered. The village of Amri has been dated back to around 3600 to 3300 BCE and consisted to more than 160 communities. No writing was found at Amri, which prospered until 2500 BCE when a fire swept through the town.

Ancient Seals and Writing

The largest discovered civilization of the time is Mohen-jo-daro. Built around 3000 BCE, Mohen-jo-daro was an agricultural city made up on a map of streets, with buildings of baked bricks and an advanced draining system. The civilization was sophisticated, having a language yet to be understood, buildings up to two stories high, a bath area with a layer of tar to prevent leakage, and large granaries. At its peak, Mohen-jo-daro most likely held around 35,000 people. The city was ruined, most likely from flooding of the Indus, and rebuilt at least seven times. Mohen-jo-daro was deserted around 1700 BCE. It is thought that this was because the Indus River changed course and therefore no longer supported the city.

Picture of Mohen-jo-daro

Before the Indo-Iranian invasion, the Indo-Aryans are believed to have invaded and founded the Vedic Civilization around 1500 BCE. The Aryans influenced the Indus Valley Civilization and later cultures in South Asia. Most importantly, perhaps, they established the Caste system, placing themselves above the native people. This system banned intermarriage and essentially enslaved the aboriginals.


Eva Agha - agha20e at mtholyoke dot edu This site was made for World Politcs 116 (c) 2006