The period of the Cold War, which ranged from the late 1940s with the conclusion of World War II, to the 1990s with the Gulf War, consisted of conflict between the world's two major hegemonic powers, the United States and the Soviet Union, over global dominance. Thus, the Cold War was specifically a nuclear arms race between the world's superpowers. The Truman and Eisenhower years were largely based upon attempts to ensure national security by relying upon preponderant military and economic strength of the United States.


The Cold War years were considered, by a majority of American citizens, to be aninvasion ideological conflict. It was a war that was not defined by guns, troops, tanks, or even the atomic bomb. Rather, the Cold War was defined by words, ideas, and political maneuvers worldwide. The 1950s' Eisenhower Administration was determined to defeat communism without provoking a third World War. To do so, President Eisenhower utilized psychological warfare campaigns.

"I think she," [Russia] "fears us just as much as we fear her. She's very insecure. And she has every right to feel insecure," said H.M. Baggarly, a local resident of the Texas Panhandle, in an interview in the late 1980s (Mojtabai, 145).

Sir Winston Churchill said, "The atomic bomb, with all its terrors, did not carry us outside the scope of human control...[But with the hydrogen bomb], the entire foundation of human affairs was revolutbombtrainionized, and mankind placed in a situation both measureless and laden with doom."

The "white train," i.e. an all-white armored train, as seen in the picture, transported nuclear warheads from the Pantex Plant across the country during the Cold War period. In more recent times, the "white train," a symbol of the anti-nuclear movement, has been replaced by large cargo trucks for transport.