A woman awaits death outside her house.
British and Italian Somali territories join to form an independent Somalia.
President Abdurashiid Ali Shermaarke is assassinated.
Siyaad Barre seizes power in military coup.
Siyaad commits Somalia to "scientific socialism," and officially aligns Somalia with the Soviet Union. The Soviets begin a massive arms buildup designed to shore up Somalia against the U.S. ally, Ethiopia.
Ethiopian Emperor and U.S. ally Haile Selassie overthrown in military coup. U.S. continues to supply arms and aid to new regime in order to counter Marxist elements in the junta.
The U.S. and Somalia sign an agreement exchanging U.S. arms for access to the abandoned Soviet military base at Berbera.
The Somali National Movement (SNM) is founded to oppose the Barre regime.
CARE joins with the National Refugee Commission and forms CARE/ELU to deliver food to refugees in Somalia.
Somalia and Ethiopia sign peace agreement forcing Ethiopia based rebel SNM to return to Somalia. They occupy Hargeysa and the government responds by bombing the city, killing tens of thousands and creating new refugee problems.
USC forces approach the city of Mogadishu. Most aid workers leave the country.
Siyaad Barre is finally driven out of Mogadishu.
Ali Mahdi Mohamed is declared interim president by the USC. Part of the USC, led by General Mohamed Farah Aideed, opposes the appointment.
SNM declares the independence of the Republic of Somaliland.
Aideed's faction of the USC, now called the Somali Nation Alliance (SNA), declares him as their leader.
Siyaad Barre's forces return. He seizes Baidoa. His troops loot grain storage bins and destroy farms. Counterattacks against Barre by Aideed's militia lead to further destruction of agriculture. Both armies pursue a scorched earth policy in Somalia's agricultural region leading to the famine.
After a conference at UN headquarters in New York, Aideed and Ali Mahdi sign a peace agreement. Other factions continue to battle in the south.
UN Security Council Resolution 751 establishes UNOSOM. Mohamed Sahnoun is soon appointed Special Representative.
Aideed drives Siyaad Barre's forces out of Somalia and across the border to Kenya. Famine conditions become serious in the south.
500 Pakistani peace keepers arrive and famine conditions begin to subside.
Aideed decides he doesn't want UNOSOM in Mogadishu and moves his troops into the city from Bardera. Siyaad Barre's forces return from Kenya and capture Bardera leading to a spike in famine deaths.
U.S. President George Bush officially offers to intervene militarily in Somalia.
With only weeks left in his term as president, George Bush responds to the UN request, proposing that US combat troops lead an international UN force to secure the environment for relief operations.
The UN accepts his offer, and Bush orders 25,000 US troops into Somalia.
First U.S. Marines land on the beach. Bush assures the American people and troops involved that this is not an open ended commitment; the objective is to quickly provide a secure environment so that food can get through to the starving Somalis, and then the operation will be turned over to the UN peacekeeping forces. He assures the public that he plans for the troops to be home by Clinton's inauguration in January. This US-led United Task Force (UNITAF) is dubbed "Operation Restore Hope."
Clinton, like Bush, is anxious to scale down the American military presence in Somalia and let the United Nations take charge.
The UN organized Conference on National Reconciliation in Somalia, held in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, results in a resolution among faction leaders, including Aideed, to end the violence.
The US officially hands over the command to the UN on May 4.
24 Pakistani UNOSOM soldiers die in Mogadishu in clashes with forces loyal to Aideed.
Admiral Howe issues the arrest warrant against Aideed and puts a $25,000 bounty on his head.
Four American military police are killed by a remote detonated land mine set off by Somalis. Two weeks later, six more US soldiers are wounded in a similar attack. This gets attention in America, and shortly thereafter, Task Force Ranger is deployed to Somalia.
In the midst of the manhunt, the Clinton administration opens a secret initiative to negotiate with Aideed. Former president Jimmy Carter, who had a previous relationship with Aideed, volunteers to act as intermediary. The US military commanders in Mogadishu are not informed about this new initiative.
18 Americans and close to 700 Somalis die in a failed attempt to snatch Aideed. Again the bodies of the dead are desecrated. An American flier is kidnapped and photos of his battered body are broadcast and published around the world.
Pres. Clinton announces U.S. will leave Somalia in six months. Hunt for Aideed is called off.
Last U.S. forces pull out of Somalia.
Siyaad Barre dies in exile in Nigeria.
Last U.N. forces pull out of Somalia.
SNA leader and self-proclaimed president Mohamed Farah Aideed dies from bullet wounds sustained several days earlier. Within days, his son Hussein Mohamed Farah, is named to take his place.