United States Foreign Policy

INTRODUCTION

 

DEFINING AMERICA'S FOREIGN POLICIES

 

ISOLATIONISM

A policy to remain neutral in world conflicts and not form permanent alliances with other countries.

isolationism

 

INTERVENTIONISM

A policy to intervene in another country’s conflict.

intervention

 

 

WASHINGTON'S ADMINISTRATION

George Washington was appointed president for 2 terms in 1789. At the end of his presidency, George Washington passed 2 very important documents which shaped the beginning of U.S. foreign policy.

Read Proclamation of Neutrality in 1793
  1. Proclamation of Neutrality in 1793

proclamation

    • The issue being considered was US involvement in the French Revolution.
    • The document states that the US will be neutral to any foreign conflict and not have permanent alliances.
    • The Proclamation of Neutrality in 1793 provided the basis for United States foreign policy in World War 1 and World War 2.
Read Washington Farewell Address in 1796
  1. Washington Farewell Address in 1796
    • Washington warned the nation to steer clear of any permanent alliance with Europe because he believed European and American interest was different.
    • Stressed trade and warned against "entangling alliances."
    • This policy of isolationism lasted until the boxer Rebellion.
 

EARLY 19th-CENTURY MONROE DOCTRINE

"No colonization and No intervention”

US will not be considered an area for further colonization and intervention.

Read Monrow Doctrine

 

IMPERIALISM
A policy in which a stronger nation attempts to dominate a weaker nation politically, economically, militarily, etc

IMPERIALISM.


ORIGINS OF IMPERIALISM
 
  1. Closing of the frontier in 1890 ( westward Expansion ended)
 
  1. International Peer Pressure
    • European nations were involved in colonizing Africa and China.
    • The United States must jump on the bandwagon or get left behind.

More Information on Manifest Destiny

  1. Josiah Strong and Manifest Destiny
    • Josiah Strong had an idea dealing with Anglo-Saxon-Superiority
    • Manifest destiny encouraged the US to expand to spread American culture, Christian religion, and democratic government
    • Manifest Destiny states “it is the destiny of America to expand from the Pacific to the Atlantic Ocean".

manifestDestiny

Mahan

4. Alfred Thayer Mahan “ Influence of the Sea power Upon History”

    • This novels stresses the need for a strong navy to protect overseas market.

InfluenceOfSeaPower

 
 

industrialRevolution

  1. Overproduction of goods
    • The United States wanted new and overseas market to sell its goods.
    • This overproduction of goods was a result of the first and second industrial revolutions.

 

 

Taking a Deeper Look into America’s Policy of Imperialism

AREAS WHERE AMERICA PRACTICED ITS POLICY OF IMPERIALISM
Hawaii

Justification:

  • United States wanted Pearl Harbor.

Evidence of imperialism:

  • Overthrow of monarchy in Hawaii in 1893.
  • Protestant religion (US had New England missionaries visit Hawaii).
  • McKinley wanted to annex Hawaii in 1898.
  • After Spanish-American War, Hawaii became a territory in 1901 and applied for statehood in 1959.

China

boxerRebellion2

Justification:

  • US wanted access to millions of Chinese consumers.
  • International peer pressure- lots of countries were carving out spheres of influence because China was weak from war with Japan.

sphereOfInfluence

Evidence of imperialism:

  • Secretary of State John Hay's “Open Door Policy” in 1899
    • Protected Chinese tradition and fair competition of trade.

    openDoor

  • Boxer rebellion in 1900
    • Crushed by a multinational force.
    • US emerging out of isolationism.

    boxerRebellion

Spanish American War in 1898

Causes: 

  • Cuba wants their independence from Spain.
  • United States wants to help Cuba.
  • Explosion of the Maine.
  • Dupuy De Lome insult on McKinley
  • Teller Amendment
    • United States will grant Cuba independence when Spain grants it.
    • United States will intervene to prevent Spain from intervening.

Justifications:

  • United States had investments of $60 million and $100 million in trade.
  • This conflict threatened shipping routes to the West Indies and Gulf of Mexico.

Evidence of Imperialism:

  • US issue Platt amendment in 1901
    • “US will reserve the right to intervene in Cuba’s affair and build naval bases.”

Read Dupuy De Lome Letter

Read Teller Amendment

Read Platt Amendment

Philippines

Justifications:

  • United States wanted to spread Christianity and establish government.
  • Profits - The Philippines represents a huge market of consumers.
  • International peer pressure - Germany might try to seize the Philippines.
  • US wanted to establish naval base in Philippines, such as Subec bay.

Evidence of Imperialism:

  • US soldiers infiltrate a guerilla camp and captured Emilio Aguinaldo, leader of the Pilipino rebels.
  • US tried to have political control over people with no desire to be controlled by the US.
  • The Philippines was annexed in 1901.

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