Central Asia

Z. V. Togan: The Origins of the Kazaks and the ˘zbeks by H. B. Paksoy, Central Asian Survey, Vol. 11, No. 3., 1992

Treaty of Friendship and Collaboration Between the Federal People's Republic of Yugoslavia, the Kingdom of Greece and The Turkish Republic, 28 February 1953

Henry Kissinger, Memorandum for the President, "Private Conversations with the King and Prime Minister of Afghanistan," 26 January 1970, with report by Vice President Spiro Agnew Attached

U.S. Embassy Kabul to Department of State, Airgram A-77, "Afghanistan's Clerical Unrest; A Tentative Assessment," 24 June 1970

U.S. Embassy Kabul to Department of State, Airgram A-90, "King Zahir's Experiment: Some End-of-Tour Observations," 1 August 1970

U.S. AID Mission Kabul to U.S. AID, Washington, TOAID Airgram A-102, "Visit of His Majesty Mohammed Zahir Shah to the Helmand Valley," 17 April 1971

U.S. Embassy Kabul to Department of State, Cable 4745, 2 August 1971, "Audience with King Zahir"

U.S. Embassy Kabul to Department of State, Cable 1806, 21 March 1972, "Afghanistan - Political Uncertainties"

U.S. Embassy Kabul to Department of State, Cable 2042, 13 April 1972, "Afghanistan - Response to Prince Daud"

Department of State to U.S. Embassy Kabul, Cable 74767, 29 April 1972, "Political Situation"

U.S. Embassy Kabul to Department of State, Airgram A-60, 29 May 1972, "Merajuddin: Portrait of a Moslem Youth Extremist"

US, Memorandum from Robert A. Flaten, NEA/PAB (Bureau of Near Eastern Affairs, Office for Pakistan, Afghanistan, and Bangladesh), to Bruce Laingen, Office Director, NEA/PAB, "Afghan Politics - the Creeping Crisis," 21 May 1972

U.S. Department of State, Bureau of Intelligence and Research, Research Study, "Afghanistan: Both Government and Political System Face Trial," 30 March 1973

Department of State to U.S. Embassy Kabul, Cable 26321, 1 April 1973, "Afghanistan - Political Uncertainties"

U.S. Embassy Kabul to Department of State, Airgram A-33, "The Afghan Left," 22 May 1973

U.S. Embassy Kabul to Department of State, Cable 4728, "King Zahir Travel to London for Medical Therapy," 26 June 1973

US, Memorandum, Harold H. Saunders and Henry A. Appelbaum, National Security Council Staff, to Dr. Kissinger, "Coup in Afghanistan," 17 July 1973

CPSU Politburo Session, "Deterioration of Conditions in the Democratic Republic of Afghanistan and Possible Responses from Our Side," March 17-18, 1979

Transcript of Telephone Conversation Between Soviet Premier Alexei Kosygin and Afghan Prime Minister Nur Mohammed Taraki, March 18, 1979

Transcript of A. N. Kosygin-A.A. Gromyko-D.F. Ustinov-B.N. Ponomarev-N.M. Taraki Conversation on March 20, 1979

Minutes of Conversation of General Secretary Brezhnev with Erich Honecker, October 4, 1979

Andropov-Gromyko-Ustinov-Ponomarev Report to the CC CPSU on the Situation in Afghanistan, October 29, 1979

Personal Memorandum from Andropov to Brezhnev on Afghanistan, early December 1979

Alexander Lyakhovsky’s Account of the Decision of the CC CPSU Decision to Send Troops to Afghanistan—from The Tragedy and Valor of Afghan (Moscow, 1995)

Memo to President from Zbigniew Brzezinski, "Reflections on Soviet intervention in Afghanistan," December 26, 1979, CNN Cold War Site

Soviet Report on Events in Afghanistan on 27-28 December 1979, December 31, 1979, CNN Cold War Site

Kyrgystan Online

Turkmenistan Resource Page

Uzbekistan in the News

Uzbekistan Resource Page

BBC, The Story of the Iranian Revolution


Kazakhstan Economic Report, Reuters, 15 August 1996

Human Rights in Turkey

Uysal Walker--Archive of Turkish Oral Narrative

Islamic Republic of Iran Broadcasting

Yahoo's News Coverage of Iran



U.S. Department of State, Human Rights Practices in Turkey, 1995

Foundation for Democracy in Iran

"U.S. Policy Toward the Central Asian States", Remarks by Ambassador James Collins, Office of the Special Advisor to the Secretary for the New Independent States, at the inauguration of the Central Asia Institute, School of Advanced International Studies, Johns Hopkins University, Washington, DC, October 21, 1996

The Center for Post-Soviet Studies

"Oil and Gas in the Caspian Sea Region: An Overview of Cooperation and Conflict," Dr. Aleksandr Akimov, Senior Fellow, Institute of Oriental Studies, Russian Academy of Sciences

Caspian Sea Oil and International Security, A multi-national conference held from March 5-6, 1996 in Moscow

Report on the December 1995 Intra-Tajik Peace Talks, by Sergei Gretsky

Central Asia: Conflict, Resolution, and Change, Edited by Roald Z. Sagdeev & Susan Eisenhower Associate Editors: Douglas A.R. Goudie & Heather Parrish Schmitt

Russian Policies Toward Central Asia: An Overview, Andrei Kortunov & Andrei Shumikhin

Central Asia after the Empire: Ethnic Groups, Communities and Problems, Yuri Kulchik

Revolutionary People's Liberation Party Front, Turkey

Ethnic Violence in Central Asia: Perceptions and Misperceptions, Martha Brill Olcott

Military Development in Kazakhstan: Goals, Parameters, and Implications for Russia, Andrei Kortunov, Yuri Kulchik & Andrei Shumikhin

Russians in Kazakhstan: Problems, Myths, and Realities, Berik Abdigaliev

Inter-Ethnic Conflict and Resolution in Kazakhstan, Nurlan Amrekulov

Democratic Kyrgyzstan: What Lies Ahead?, Tolkun Namatbaeva

Uzbekistan's Foreign Policy: In Search of a Strategy, Kadir Alimov

Central Asian Security Forces Against Their Dissidents in Exile, Abdumannob Polat(ov)

Civil War in Tajikistan: Causes, Developments and Prospects for Peace, Sergei Gretsky

The Conflict in Tajikistan: Questions of Regionalism, Davlat Khudonazar(ov)

Religion: The Pillar of Society, Qadi Akbar Turajonzoda

Central Asia as a Region in the World Economy, Alexander Akimov

Central Asia as a New Region in World Politics, Sergei Lounev & Glerii Shirokov

The Role of the OCSE in the Peace Process of Tajikistan, Olivier Roy

Ethnic Conflict Resolution and U.S. Assistance, Nancy Lubin

Central Asian Sites Page

Central Asian Occasional Papers Series

Perspectives on Central Asia, A Monthly Newsletter Examining Conflict Resolution in Central Asia, Published by the Center for Post-Soviet Studies

Central Eurasia Resource Pages

Eurasia Research Center

Interactive Central Asia Resource Project



Russia Today

Iran: Profile

The Taliban Page

Afghanistan Today

The New Proxy War, Far Eastern Economic Review, February 1 1996

Treaty of Friendship and Collaboration Between the Federal People's Republic of Yugoslavia, the Kingdom of Greece and The Turkish Republic, 28 February 1953

The Turks in History

Afghan Media

Afghanistan, 1973-1990

Voice of America, Albright on US-Iran Relations, September 14, 1997

Stephen C. Fairbanks, "A New Era For Iran?" Middle East Policy, Volume V, January 1997, Number 3

The Islamic State of Afghanistan

"Iran's Atomic Programs and Foreign Propaganda," Hamshahri (Morning Daily), August 22, 25, 1996, Pages: 11, 11, By: Jalil Roshandel & Saeedeh Lotfian


CentAsia, Infomine

Kazakstan on the WWW

Welcome to Kazakstan

Turkmenistan on the Web


Human Rights in Turkey

MONIKA SHEPHERD, Institute for the Study of Conflict, Ideology and Policy, "Intervention in Central Asia," Perspective, Volume VII, No 3 (January-February 1997)

The History of Turkish Jews

American-Iranian Council

Ayse Kadioglu, "The Paradox of Turkish Nationalism and the Construction of Official Identity," Middle Eastern Studies, Vol. 32, no. 2 (April 1996)

Ihsan Dagi, "Democratic Transition in Turkey, 1980-83:  The Impact of European Diplomacy," Middle Eastern Studies, Vol. 32, no. 2 (April 1996)

Taleban Islamic Movement of Afghanistan

The Islamic State of Afghanistan

Official webpage of the Jamiat-e-Islami Afghanistan

U.S. Department of State, James P. Rubin, Assistant Secretary, Remarks at Stakeout After Six-Plus-Two Meeting on Afghanistan, United Nations, New York, New York, September 21, 1998

U.S. Department of State, Strobe Talbott, Deputy Secretary, Turgut Ozal Memorial Lecture, "U.S.-Turkish Relations in an Age of Interdependence," Washington Institute on Near East Policy, October 14, 1998

Karl F. Inderfurth, Assistant Secretary for South Asian Affairs, Testimony before the Subcommittee for Near Eastern and South Asian Affairs, of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee, "Remarks on Afghanistan," Washington, DC, October 8, 1998

Houman A. Sadri, "Trends in the Foreign Policy of Revolutionary Iran," Journal of Third World Studies, Vol. 15, no. 1 (April 1998)

Information Agency of Kazakhstan

Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty: Kazakh Service

FreeNET Kazakhstan

Eurasia Research Center, Central Asian Monuments

Presidency of the Islamic Republic of Iran, Official Site

Revolutionary Association of the Women of Afghanistan

Harold Hongju Koh, Assistant Secretary for Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor, Remarks before the Commission on Security and Cooperation in Europe, "Human Rights in the Republic of Turkey," Washington, DC,  March 18, 1999

Center for Economic Research, Uzbekistan


John R. Bolton, Under Secretary for Arms Control and International Security, Remarks to the Hudson Institute, "Preventing Iran from Acquiring Nuclear Weapons," Washington, DC, August 17, 2004

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