Documents Relating to American Foreign Policy

Hiroshima


NuclearFiles.org, A Project of the Nuclear Age Peace Foundation

Letter from Albert Einstein to President Franklin Delano Roosevelt, 2 August 1939

Letter from Albert Einstein to President Franklin Delano Roosevelt about nuclear physicist Dr. Leo Szilard, 25 March1945

Letter from Secretary of War Henry Stimson to President Truman, informing him about the atomic bomb April 24, 1945

Douglas MacEachin, "The Final Months of the War with Japan: Signals Intelligence, U.S. Invasion Planning, and the A-Bomb Decision,"   U.S. Central Intelligence Agency, 1999

Truman and the Bomb, a Documentary History Edited by Robert H. Ferrell

D. M. Giangreco, U.S. Army Command and General Staff College, Transcript of "The Soldier from Independence: Harry S. Truman and the Great War," 7 April 2002

The A-Bomb Project

Voice of Hibakusha, Oral Testimonies of Hiroshima Survivors

Report prepared by Eben Ayers, White House Assistant Press Secretary, ca. 1950 on the Decision to Drop the Bomb

The Trinity Site

General Paul Tibbets and the Enola Gay

The Hiroshima Archives

Hiroshima: Was It Necessary?

The Planned Invasion of Japan, Bibliography of works by D. M. Giangreco

"THE DECISION TO USE THE ATOMIC BOMB", GAR ALPEROVITZ AND THE H-NET DEBATE

Michael Kort, "Racing the Enemy: A Critical Look," Historically Speaking, Volume VII, Number 3, January-February 2006

Alonzo L. Hamby, "The Decision to Drop the Bomb," Journal of American History, Vol. 84, no. 2 (September 1997)

Transcript of "OPERATION DOWNFALL [US invasion of Japan]:  US PLANS AND JAPANESE COUNTER-MEASURES" by D. M. Giangreco, US Army Command and General Staff College, 16 February 1998

H-Net, Lloyd Gardner's Cold War Essay

H-Net, Re: Gardner Cold War Essay

H-Net, Fourteen Notes on the Very Concept of the Cold War, Anders Stephanson, Columbia University

HIROSHIMA: HARRY TRUMAN'S DIARY AND PAPERS

HIROSHIMA: HENRY STIMSON'S DIARY AND PAPERS: Part 1 (12/31/44 - 4/11/45)

HIROSHIMA: RALPH BARD'S ALTERNATIVE TO A-BOMBING JAPAN

A-Bomb WWW Museum

Remembering Nagasaki

The Hiroshima Archive

Hiroshima Directory

ENOLA GAY EXHIBIT, THE HISTORIANS' LETTER TO THE SMITHSONIAN, 1995

HIROSHIMA: HARRY TRUMAN'S DIARY AND PAPERS

J. Robert Oppenheimer to James B. Conant, November 30, 1942

J. Robert Oppenheimer's memo for General Leslie R. Groves, April 30, 1943

Transcribed telephone conversation between the Secretary of War Stimson and Senator Truman (Excerpt), Stimson asks Truman not to inquire into the nature of the Manhattan Project, June 17, 1943

Leslie R. Groves to J. Robert Oppenheimer, July 29, 1943

Quebec Agreement, August 19, 1943

J. Robert Oppenheimer to General Leslie R. Groves, Los Alamos, November 2, 1943

Anglo-American Declaration of Trust, June 13, 1944

The Roosevelt-Churchill "Tube Alloys" Deal, September 19, 1944

Memorandum from Vannevar Bush and James B. Conant, Office of Scientific Research and Development, to Secretary of War, September 30, 1944, Top Secret

J. Robert Oppenheimer to General Leslie R. Groves, (Los Alamos) October 6, 1944

Commander F. L. Ashworth to Major General L.R. Groves, "The Base of Operations of the 509th Composite Group," February 24, 1945, Top Secret

Albert Einstein to President Roosevelt, March 25, 1945, and subsequent correspondence

Stimson mentions the Bomb to Truman after 12 April Cabinet Meeting, 12 April 1945

Memorandum for the Secretary of War from General L. R. Groves, "Atomic Fission Bombs," April 23, 1945

Stimson Informs Truman about the Bomb, Memorandum, April, 24 1945.

D. M. Giangreco, "Casualty Projections for the US Invasions of Japan, 1945-46: Planning and Policy Implications," Journal of Military History, 61 (July 1997): 521-82

Memorandum discussed with the President on the existence of the Atomic Bomb, April 25, 1945

Untitled memorandum by General L.R. Groves on the discussion with President Truman, April 25, 1945

Henry Stimson Diary, Diary Entry, April 25, 1945

D. M. Giangreco, U.S. Army Command and General Staff College, "Evolving Methodologies in Casualty Reporting to the American Public During World War II," Society for Military History 70th Annual Meeting sponsored by the Center for the Study of War and Society, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, 1- 4 May 2003

Report prepared by Eben Ayers, Assistant White House Press Secretary

George Harrison's memo for the Secretary of War (Stimson), May 1, 1945

Notes on Initial Meeting of Target Committee, May 2, 1945, Top Secret

Notes of an Informal Meeting of the Interim Committee, Wednesday, 9 May 1945

Notes of the Interim Committee Meeting, Thursday, 31 May 1945

Interim Committee Log, 9 May 1945 through 1 July 1945

Target Committee, Minutes of the second meeting of the Target Committee, Los Alamos, May 10-11, 1945

Memorandum for Major General L.R. Groves regarding the Summary of Target Committee Meetings on May 10th, 11th, 12th, 1945

Memorandum from J. R. Oppenheimer to Brigadier General Farrell on Target Selection, May 11, 1945

Memorandum from Major J. A. Derry and Dr. N.F. Ramsey to General L.R. Groves, "Summary of Target Committee Meetings on 10 and 11 May 1945," May 12, 1945, Top Secret

Notes of an Informal Meeting of the Interim Committee, Monday, 14 May 1945

Henry Stimson Diary, Diary Entries, May 14 and 15, 1945

Notes of an Informal Meeting of the Interim Committee, Friday, 18 May 1945

Joseph E. Davies Diary, Diary entry for May 21, 1945 on Truman's Concern about Diplomatic Issues Concerning the Use of the Bomb

Notes of the Interim Committee Meeting, Thursday, 31 May 1945

Notes of the Interim Committee Meeting, Friday, 1 June 1945

Joint Chiefs of Staff knowledge of the Atom Bomb and Chronology regarding Truman from 6/45 -7/24/45

The Franck Report, June 11, 1945

Glenn T. Seaborg to Ernest O. Lawrence, June 13, 1945

Recommendations on the Immediate Use of Nuclear Weapons, by the Scientific Panel of the Interim Committee on Nuclear Power, June 16, 1945.

The Decision to Drop the Atomic Bomb: Minutes of Meeting at White House June 18, 1945 ( Evaluation of current situation regarding the War in the Pacific against the Japanese)

Doug Long, "John McCloy and the Atomic Bombing of Japan"

Minutes of Meeting Held at the White House on Monday, 18 June 1945

Pages from President Truman's diary regarding June 18, 1945 meeting

Notes of the Interim Committee Meeting, Thursday, 21 June 1945

George Harrison's memo for the Secretary of War (Stimson), June 26, 1945

Bard Memorandum, June 27, 1945

Minutes of Third Target Committee Meeting – Washington, May 28, 1945

General Lauris Norstad to Commanding General, XXI Bomber Command, "509th Composite Group; Special Functions," May 29, 1945

Assistant Secretary of War John J. McCloy, "Memorandum of Conversation with General Marshal May 29, 1945 – 11:45 p.m."

"Notes of the Interim Committee Meeting Thursday, 31 May 1945, 10:00 A.M. to 1:15 P.M. – 2:15 P.M. to 4:15 P.M.," n.d.

General George A. Lincoln to General Hull, June 4, 1945, enclosing draft, on Russian Entry into the War, Top Secret

Memorandum from R. Gordon Arneson, Interim Committee Secretary, to Mr. Harrison on Targeting Options, June 6, 1945

Memorandum of Conference with the President on the Use of the Bomb, June 6, 1945

Memorandum from Arthur B. Compton to the Secretary of War, enclosing "Memorandum on 'Political and Social Problems,' from Members of the 'Metallurgical Laboratory' of the University of Chicago," June 12, 1945

Memorandum from Acting Secretary of State Joseph Grew to the President, "Analysis of Memorandum Presented by Mr. Hoover," June 13, 1945

Memorandum from Chief of Staff Marshall to the Secretary of War, 15 June 1945, enclosing "Memorandum of Comments on 'Ending the Japanese War,'" June 14, 1945

Memorandum by J. R. Oppenheimer, "Recommendations on the Immediate Use of Nuclear Weapons," June 16, 1945

"Minutes of Meeting Held at the White House on Monday, 18 June 1945 at 1530"

Memorandum from R. Gordon Arneson, Interim Committee Secretary, to Mr. Harrison, June 25, 1945

Memorandum from George L. Harrison to Secretary of War Summarizing the Views of the Scientists, June 26, 1945

Memorandum from George L. Harrison to Secretary of War, June 28, 1945, Top Secret, enclosing Ralph Bard "Memorandum on the Use of S-1 Bomb," June 27, 1945

Memorandum for Mr. McCloy, "Comments re: Proposed Program for Japan," June 28, 1945, Draft, Top Secret

Opinion Poll on Treatment of the Japanese Emperor, "What do you think we should do with the Japanese emperor after the war?" (June 29, '45 --AIPO [American Institute for Public Opinion])

Assistant Secretary of War John J. McCloy to Colonel Stimson, June 29, 1945

Memorandum, "Timing of Proposed Demand for Japanese Surrender," June 29, 1945

Setting the Test Date, July 2, 1945

Memorandum for the President, Draft Proclamation to Japan, Stimson, [Washington,] July 2, 1945.

Interim Committee Log, 2 July 1945 through 28 July 1945

Szilard Petition, First Version, July 3, 1945

Szilard petition, cover letter, July 4, 1945

Groves Seeks Evidence Against Szilard, July 4, 1945

Notes of the Interim Committee Meeting, Friday, 6 July 1945

Minutes, Secretary's Staff Committee, Saturday Morning, July 7, 1945, 133d Meeting

Combined Chiefs of Staff, “Estimate of the Enemy Situation as of 6 July 1945, C.C.S 643/3, July 8, 1945, Secret (Appendices Not Included)

Telegrams communicating Japanese Peace Feelers through the Soviet Union. 11 July-30 July, 1945

"Magic" – Diplomatic Summary of Japanese Peace Feelers through the Soviet Union, War Department, Office of Assistant Chief of Staff, G-2, No. 1204 – July 12, 1945

Oak Ridge petition, July 13, 1945

John Weckerling, Deputy Assistant Chief of Staff, G-2, July 12, 1945, to Deputy Chief of Staff, "Japanese Peace Offer," 13 July 1945

"Magic"– Diplomatic Summary, War Department, Office of Assistant Chief of Staff, G-2, No. 1205 – July 13, 1945

Oak Ridge petition, mid-July 1945

Trinity Test, July 16, 1945 - Radiation Monitoring

Trinity Test, July 16, 1945 - Eyewitness Accounts

Pages from President Truman's diary, July 16, 1945

Truman's diary entries on Potsdam from the President's Secretary's file, July 16, 1945

Cable to Secretary of State from Acting Secretary Joseph Grew suggesting that the Japanese be permitted to retain the Emperor, July 16, 1945

Henry Stimson's Diary, Diary entries for July 16 through 25, 1945

"Magic" – Diplomatic Summary of Japanese Position, War Department, Office of Assistant Chief of Staff, G-2, No. 1210 – July 17, 1945

R. E. Lapp, Leo Szilard et al., "A Petition to the President of the United States," July 17, 1945

A PETITION TO THE PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES, 17 July 1945

Cable War 33556 from Harrison to Secretary of War on the Trinity Test, July 17, 1945

Pages from President Truman's diary, July 17, 18, and 25, 1945

Barton J. Bernstein, "Truman At Potsdam: His Secret Diary," Foreign Service Journal, July/August 1980

Memorandum from General L. R. Groves to Secretary of War, "The Test," July 18, 1945, Top Secret, Excised Copy

General Leslie Groves' Memorandum Describing the First Nuclear Test In New Mexico, 18 July 1945

Memorandum for the Secretary of War 18 July 1945, with attached drawing with notes of the atomic cloud, presumably by Lansing Lamont, July 16, 1945

Truman's diary entries from the President's Secretary's file, dates from July 17,1945 - July 30, 1945

Two photographs of a meeting of President Truman, Prime Minister Winston Churchill, and Premier Joseph Stalin at Potsdam, Germany, July 19, 1945, with notes by President Truman written on the reverse

Interim Committee Log, Memorandum for the Record, 20 July 1945 through 12 Sept. 1945

Rear Admiral Sokichi Takagi, Diary Entry for July 20, 1945 on Japanese Decision-making

"Magic" – Diplomatic Summary of Internal Japanese Decision-making, War Department, Office of Assistant Chief of Staff, G-2, No. 1214 – July 22, 1945

Cable VICTORY 213 from Marshall to Handy Initiating Directive for Using the Atomic Bomb, July 22, 1945

Memorandum from Colonel John Stone to General Arnold, "Groves Project," 24 July 1945

Cable WAR 37683 from General Handy to General Marshal, enclosing directive to General Spatz, July 24, 1945

Truman Tells Stalin, July 24, 1945

Truman-Stalin Conversation, Tuesday, July 24, 1945, 7:30 P.M.

Memorandum for General Arnold regarding the Groves Project, July 24, 1945

James Forrestal Diaries, Diary Entry, July 24, 1945, "Japanese Peace Feelers"

Cable VICTORY 261 from Marshall to General Handy, July 25, 1945, 25 July 1945

Official Bombing Order, July 25, 1945

Harry S. Truman, Diary, July 25, 1945

General Thomas T. Handy To General Carl Spaatz, July 25, 1945

General Thomas T. Handy to General Carl Spaatz, July 26, 1945

Potsdam Proclamation, 26 July 1945

Ambassador Davies Diary, Diary entry for July 29, 1945

"Magic" – Diplomatic Summary of Japanese Reaction to the Potsdam Declaration, War Department, Office of Assistant Chief of Staff, G-2, No. 1221- July 29, 1945

Cable, Secretary of War to President Truman, July 30, 1945, with a handwritten response by the President on the reverse

Message to President Truman from the Secretary of War, 30 July 1945, with handwritten response from Truman

Leslie R. Groves' Memo to the Chief of Staff (George C. Marshall), 30 July 1945

Memorandum from Major General L. R. Groves to Chief of Staff, July 30, 1945, Top Secret, Sanitized Copy

"Magic" – Diplomatic Summary on Japanese-Russian Discussions, War Department, Office of Assistant Chief of Staff, G-2, No. 1222 – July 30, 1945

Note from President Truman To His Wife, July 31

Henry L. Stimson prepared statement for the public regarding dropping the Atomic Bomb forwarded to President Truman, July 31, 1945

HENRY STIMSON'S DIARY AND PAPERS: Part 1 (12/31/44 - 4/11/45)

HENRY STIMSON'S DIARY AND PAPERS: Part 2 (4/23/45 - 5/9/45)

HENRY STIMSON'S DIARY AND PAPERS: Part 3 (5/10/45 - 5/28/45)

"Magic" – Diplomatic Summary on Internal Japanese Discussions, War Department, Office of Assistant Chief of Staff, G-2, No. 1225 – August 2, 1945

"Magic" – Diplomatic Summary on Internal Japanese Discussions, War Department, Office of Assistant Chief of Staff, G-2, No. 1226 - August 3, 1945

Notes of Walter Brown, Aide to James Brynes, on Discussion Concerning Japanese-Soviet Contacts, August 3, 1945

CG 313th Bomb Wing, Tinian cable APCOM 5112 to War Department on Weather Delays, August 3, 1945, Top Secret

CG 313th Bomb Wing, Tinian cable APCOM 5130 to War Department on Weather Delays, August 4, 1945, Top Secret

CG 313th Bomb Wing, Tinian cable APCOM 5155 to War Department on Weather Delays, August 4, 1945, Top Secret

"Magic" – Far East Summary on Japanese Defensive Preparations Against an Invasion, War Department, Office of Assistant Chief of Staff, G-2, no. 502, 4 August 1945

"Magic" – Diplomatic Summary on Japanese Concerns about the Russian Connection, War Department, Office of Assistant Chief of Staff, G-2, No. 1228 – August 5, 1945

Chronology regarding Truman and the a-bomb from 8/2/45 - 8/10/45 with Smyth report on atomic bomb. Released, August 6, 1951

Groves-Oppenheimer Transcript, August 6, 1945

Leaflets dropped on cities in Japan warning civilians about the atomic bomb, dropped c. August 6, 1945

Draft of a White House press release, "Statement by the President of the United States," ca. August 6, 1945

White House Press Release Anouncing the Bombing of Hiroshima, August 6, 1945

War Department press release, "Statement of the Secretary of War," ca. August 6, 1945

Memorandum from General L. R. Groves to the Chief of Staff, August 6, 1945

Interview of Paul Tibbets, pilot of the Enola Gay, by Studs Terkel, The Guardian, 6 August 2002

War Department, Washington, D.C., Statement of the Secretary of War

Cable, Senator Richard B. Russell to President Truman, August 7, 1945

Memorandum of Conversation, W. Averill Harriman and Molotov, "Atomic Bomb," August 7, 1945

Admiral Tagaki’s Diary, Diary Entry for Wednesday, August 8, 1945

Navy Secretary James Forrestal to President Truman, August 8, 1945

"Between Hell and Reason," by Albert Camus, August 8, 1945

Memorandum of Conversation, Harriman and Stalin, "Far Eastern War and General Situation," August 8, 1945

Memorandum of Conference, Stimson and the President, August 8, 1945 at 10:45 AM

President Truman to Senator Richard B. Russell, August 9, 1945

Cable APCOM 5445 from General Farrell to O’Leary [Groves assistant] on Nagasaki, August 9, 1945

COMGENAAF 8 cable CMDW 576 to COMGENUSASTAF, for General Farrell on Nagasaki, August 9, 1945

COMGENAAF 20 Guam cable AIMCCR 5532 to COMGENUSASTAF Guam on Nagasaki, August 10, 1945

Kazutoshi Hando, The Pacific War Research Society, Japan's Longest Day (Tokyo: Kodansha International, Ltd., 1968), pp. 11-53.

Shigenori Togo, from The Cause of Japan (New York: Simon and Schuster, Inc., 1956), PP. 299-301, 309-322.

A Warning to Japan Urging Surrender: Excerpts from President Truman's radio address to the American people, August 9, 1945

Truman Speech, August 9, 1945 (excerpt)

Samuel McCrea Cavert to President Truman, August 9, 1945

"Magic" – Far East Summary on Japanese Reaction to Hiroshima, War Department, Office of Assistant Chief of Staff, G-2, no. 507, August 9, 1945

"Hoshina Memorandum" on the Emperor's "Sacred Decision [go-seidan]," 9-10 August, 1945

"Magic" – Far East Summary on Japanese Reaction to Hiroshima, War Department, Office of Assistant Chief of Staff, G-2, no. 508, August 10, 1945

"Magic" – Diplomatic Summary of first Japanese Surrender proposal, War Department, Office of Assistant Chief of Staff, G-2, No. 1233 – August 10, 1945

Translation of intercepted Japanese messages, circa 10 August 10, 1945

Diary Entry, Friday, August 10, 1945, Henry Wallace Diary

Henry Stimson Diary, Diary Entries, Friday and Saturday, August 10 and 11, 1945

General L. R. Groves to Chief of Staff George C. Marshall, August 10, 1945

Memorandum of Conversation of Harriman, Kerr, and Molotov, "Japanese Surrender Negotiations," August 10, 1945

President Truman to Samuel McCrea Cavert, August 11, 1945

Admiral Tagaki's Diary, Diary Entry for August 12, 1945

Memorandum from Major General Clayton Bissell, Assistant Chief of Staff, G-2, for the Chief of Staff, "Estimate of Japanese Situation for Next 30 Days," August 12, 1945

Letter from Norman Ramsey to J. Robert Oppenheimer, undated [mid-August 1945]

Letter from Ramsey to Oppenheimer, Mid-August 1945

The Cabinet Meeting over the Reply to the Four Powers (August 13) Source: Gaimusho [Ministry of Foreign Affairs], ed., Shusen Shiroku [Historical Record of the End of the War] (Tokyo: Hokuyosha, 1977-1978), vol. 5, 27-35 [Translated by Toshihiro Higuchi]

Telephone conversation transcript on anticipating Japanese military reponses, General Hull and Colonel Seeman – 1325 – 13 Aug 45

"Magic" – Diplomatic Summary indicating that some parts of the Japanese military were unwilling to surrender, War Department, Office of Assistant Chief of Staff, G-2, No. 1236 – August 13, 1945

"The Second Sacred Judgment", August 14, 1945 Source: Hiroshi [Kaian) Shimomura, Shusenki [Account of the End of the War] (Tokyo, Kamakura Bunko, [1948], 148-152 [Translated by Toshihiro Higuchi]

Leo Szilard to Matthew J. Connelly, August 17, 1945

"Magic" – Far East Summary on Japanese Assessment of Destruction of Nagasaki, War Department, Office of Assistant Chief of Staff, G-2, no. 515, August 18, 1945

Memorandum of Telephone Conversation Between General Groves and Lt. Col. Rea dismissing reports of radiation poisoning, Oak Ridge Hospital, 9:00 a.m., August 28, 1945

Matthew J. Connelly, memorandum for James Byrnes, September 6, 1945

Cable CAX 51813 from USS Teton to Commander in Chief Army Forces Pacific Administration, From Farrell to Groves on Damage to Hiroshima and Nagasaki, September 10, 1945

Henry L. Stimson to President Truman, September 11, 1945

Henry L. Stimson, memorandum for the President, September 11, 1945

Leo Szilard, Interview: "President Truman Did Not Understand," An authorized web-reprint of the full text of "President Truman Did Not Understand," U.S. News & World Report, August 15, 1960, pages 68-71.

Emperor Hirohito, Accepting the Potsdam Declaration, Radio Broadcast

Letter to President Truman from Secretary of War Henry L. Stimson, September 11, 1945 (8 pages)

Cable CAX 51948 from Commander in Chief Army Forces Pacific Advance Yokohoma Japan to Commander in Chief Army Forces Pacific Administration on Damage to Hiroshima and Nagasaki, September 14, 1945

Interim Committee Log, Memorandum for the Record, 14 Sept. 1945 through 1 October 1945

Letter to President Truman from the Department of Agriculture cautioning Truman not to give the Russians the formula to the A-bomb, September 25, 1945

Letter to the President from Senator Kenneth McKellar outlining 20 reasons why the United States should not release to any nation the formula for making an atomic bomb, September 27, 1945

Philip B. Fleming letter to the President regarding peacetime development of Atomic Energy, September 28, 1945

"Atomic Bombing of Hiroshima" The Eyewitness Account of Father P. Siomes

Interim Committee Log, Memorandum for the Record, 3 October 1945 through 16 October 1945

Interim Committee Log, Memorandum for the Record, 17 October 1945 through 16 November 1945

The History News Network "Truman on Trial"

Ronald Radosh, "Truman on Trial: The Defense, Opening Argument," History News Network

Statement of Recommendations on Release of Atomic Bomb Project Information, February 4, 1946

Vice Admiral Blandy's Press Conference pertaining to Joint Army-Navy task force number one Operation Crossroads -- Release No. 46, May 13, 1946

U.S. Strategic Bombing Survey, "The Effects of the Atomic Bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki," June 9, 1946

Pages 27 and 28 of a report by the U.S. Strategic Bombing Survey, "The Effects of the Atomic Bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki," June 9, 1946

U. S. Strategic Bombing Survey: The Effects of the Atomic Bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Chairman's Office, 19 June 1946

Letter from Franklin D'Olier, Chairman U.S. Strategic Bombing Survey, 20 June 1946

Franklin D'Olier to President Truman, June 20, 1946

THE ATOMIC BOMBINGS OF HIROSHIMA AND NAGASAKI by The Manhattan Engineer District, June 29, 1946.

United States Strategic Bombing Survey, "The Decision for Peace" and an Essay by Germany's Vice Admiral Weichold "The Axis in the Mediterranean"

United States Strategic Bombing Survey: Summary Report (Pacific War), July 1, 1946

United States Strategic Bombing survey "Japan's Struggle to End the War", July 1, 1946

"Preliminary Report Following the Second Atomic Bomb Test", Report by the Joint Chiefs of Staff Evaluation Board for the Atomic Bomb Tests, 30 July 1946

President Harry S. Truman's letter to Mr. Bohnen's objection to the film because it made the decision to drop the bomb look like a snap judgment, December 12, 1946

Letter From President Truman to Dr. Compton plus an article written by Karl T. Compton "If the Atomic Bomb Had Not Been Used"

Karl T. Compton "If the Atomic Bomb Had Not Been Used," Atlantic Monthly, December 1946

President Truman to Karl T. Compton, December 16, 1946

June 30, 1947: "The Evaluation of the Atomic bomb as a Military Weapon", the Final Report of the Joints Chiefs of Staff Evaluation Board for Operation Crossroads

"The Evaluation of the Atomic Bomb as a Military Weapon", the Final Report of the Joints Chiefs of Staff Evaluation Board for Operation Crossroads, 30 June 1947

Sept. 21, 1949: Memorandum by the Chief of Staff, U. S. Air Force to the Secretary of Defense on Long-range Detection of Atomic Explosions

"Soviet Intentions and Capabilities", 20 February 1950

Memorandum by Eben A. Ayers, "The Atomic Bomb," ca. 1951

Yosuke Yamahata, Photographing the Bomb, A Memo, (1952)

Selected White House Memoranda on the Decision to Drop the Bomb, 1952- 1953

James L. Cate to President Truman, December 6, 1952

Handwritten draft by President Truman of a letter to James l. Cate, December 31, 1952

Kenneth W. Hechler, memorandum for Mr. Lloyd, January 2, 1953

Kenneth W. Hechler, memorandum for Mr. Lloyd, January 5, 1953

Kenneth W. Hechler, memorandum (2) for Mr. Lloyd, January 5, 1953

David D. Lloyd, memorandum for the President on his letter to Cate, January 6, 1953

President Truman to James L. Cate, January 12, 1953

Letter to the President from Atomic Energy Commissioner Thomas E. Murray, and President Truman's response, January 18 & 19, 1953

Interview with former President Truman, c. 1955

Tentative Chronology of Parts Played by Scientist in the decision to use the Bomb against Japan, May 29, 1957

Tsukasa Nitoguri to former President Truman, March 1, 1958, and the President's Response, March 12

Tsukasa Nitoguri to former President Truman, March 1, 1958

Handwritten notes by former President Truman beginning "The world is faced..." ca. 1958

Letter from Truman to Irv Kupcinet, August 5, 1963

Joseph W. Alsop, David Joravsky, "Was the Hiroshima Bomb Necessary? An Exchange," New York Review of Books, Volume 27, Number 16 · October 23, 1980

Paul Fussell, "Thank God For Atom The Bomb" in Thank God for the Atom Bomb and Other Essays (New York: Summit Books, 1988). First published as "Hiroshima: A Soldier's View," New Republic (August 1981)

Transcript of "OPERATION DOWNFALL [US invasion of Japan]:  US PLANS AND JAPANESE COUNTER-MEASURES" by D. M. Giangreco, US Army Command and General Staff College, 16 February 1998

Hiroshima International Council for Health Care of the Radiation-exposed (HICARE)

Eric Alterman on the Bombing of Hiroshima, Posted on H-Diplo 7 August 2003

D. M. Giangreco, "Was Dwindling US Army Manpower a Factor in the Atom Bombing of Hiroshima?" History News Network, 21 July 2008

Washington's Blog, "The REAL Reason America Used Nuclear Weapons Against Japan (It Was Not To End the War Or Save Lives)," 14 October 2012


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