"In recent years we have often heard it said that more heat than light has been cast on the China question. I am not surprised at the heat, nor do I object to it, provided there is also sufficient light. The fate of one-fourth of the world's population is not a matter which can be taken lightly, and the addition of China's vast material and manpower resources to the Soviet bloc is a matter involving not only the security interests of the United States but those of the entire free world. I do not see how one can help feeling strongly about these matters. We need not apologize that our thinking about China is charged with feeling. National policies are an expression of national interests concerning which there is naturally much feeling, and our policies are an expression both of what we are and of what we want. We are a nation of free peoples. We want to remain free to pursue in peace our proper national destiny, and we want the same freedom and rights for others.
"We do not believe that the Chinese Communist regime represents the will of the people it controls. First capitalizing on the natural desire of the Chinese people to enjoy full recognition and respect for their importance in the world community, the regime then proceeded by its 'lean-to-one-side' policy to betray the powerful Chinese longings to stand up straight. It has followed slavishly the leadership of the Soviet Union and attempted to emulate it in all its ways. With the aid of thousands of Soviet advisers it has set about methodically to change the entire fabric of traditional Chinese culture, substituting communism's materialistic, atheistic doctrines wherein the state is the be-all and end-all and the individual its pawn.
"The regime at first attracted considerable support, principally through its sponsorship of a land redistribution program, but is now, after establishment of the prerequisite police-state controls, taking the land away from the owners in the same collectivization process which is familiar in other Communist countries and which invariably has brought suffering in its wake. China's much advertised 'New Democracy' is of course in reality 'old communism.'
"From its inception the regime has proclaimed a 'lean-to-one-side' policy
in foreign affairs, and has left no doubt about its dedication to the proposition
of world Communist revolution under the leadership of the Union of Soviet
Socialist Republics. While its 'leaning-to-one-side' has not brought it to
the position of complete 'prostration-to-one-side' characteristic of the Eastern
European Soviet satellites, there is not the slightest evidence that this
indicates any separatist tendencies. The difference in status of Peiping in
its relationship with Moscow (as distinguished from that of the Eastern European
satellites) is rather due chiefly to its having come to power without benefit,
except in Manchuria, of Soviet Army occupation; to the prestige of Mao Tse-tung,
arising from his long history of leadership of Chinese communism and his literary
contributions to theoretical communism; to China's assumption of the role
Source: The Pentagon Papers, Gravel Edition, Vol. 1 (Boston: Beacon Press, 1971), p. 596
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