Four Leading Powers indexed to "Hegemon," 1830-Present


Country and percentage of "hegemon's" value

(Perceived Hegemon's Value is Bolded)

Year Largest 2nd Largest 3rd Largest 4th Largest
Gross National Product
2003 (GNI, Atlas Method) USA 100 Japan 40 Germany 29

UK 15

1983 USA 100 USSR 41 Japan 35 W. Germany 20
1938 USA 100 Germany 37 USSR 37 UK 27
1913 USA 306 Russia 123 Germany 113 UK 100
1870 USA 117 Russia 117 UK 100 France 86
1830 Russia 132 France 105 UK 100 A-H 87
Military Expenditures
2003 USA 100 Russia 16 China 12 Japan 11
1983 USA 100 USSR 100 China 19 UK 16
1950 USSR 106 USA 100 China 18 UK 16
1938 Germany 657 USSR 481 UK 161 Japan 154
1913 Germany 129 Russia 125 UK 100 France 99
1872 Russia 127 France 119 UK 100 Germany 68
1830 France 148 UK 100 Russia 92

A-H 54

Manufacturing Production
2000 USA 100 Japan 85 Germany 34 China 24
1953 USA 100 USSR 24 UK 19 W. Germany 13
1938 USA 100 Germany 40 UK 34 USSR 29
1913 USA 235 Germany 109 UK 100 Russia 26
1870 UK 100 China 75 USA 51 France 37
1830 China 319 India 185 UK 100 Russia 39

Source: Bruce Russert, "The Mysterious Case of Vanishing Hegemony; or, Is Mark Twain Really Dead?" International Organization, Vol. 39, no. 2 (Spring 1985), p. 212; 2003 GNI Data from the World Bank, World Development Indicators, July 2004; 2003 Military Expenditures Data from Center for Defense Information, "Last of the Big Time Spenders: U.S. Military Budget Still the World's Largest, and Growing," March 19, 2003; Manufacturing data for 2000 from The World Bank, World Development Indicators, Manufacturing, value added in constant 1995 $US, (Washington: The World Bank, 2003).