Political Islam

Pact of Umar, 7th Century

Al-Baladhuri: The Battle Of The Yarmuk (636) and After

Ibn Abd-el-Hakem: The Islamic Conquest of Spain

Anonymous Arab Chronicler: The Battle of Poitiers, 732

Jane F. Collier, Islamic Law and Western Imperialism

An Elementary Study of Islam by Hadhrat Mirza Tahir Ahmad

Centre of Islamic and Middle Eastern Law, School of Oriental Studies

Bernard Lewis, "Islam and Liberal Democracy: A Historical Overview," Journal of Democracy 7.2 (1996) 52-63

Robin Wright "Islam and Liberal Democracy: Two Visions Of Reformation," Journal of Democracy 7.2 (1996) 64-75

Abdou Filali-Ansary, "Islam and Liberal Democracy: The Challenge Of Secularization," Journal of Democracy 7.2 (1996) 76-80

Mohamed Elhachmi Hamdi, "Islam and Liberal Democracy: The Limits Of The Western Model," Journal of Democracy 7.2 (1996) 81-85

Laith Kubba, "Islam and Liberal Democracy: Recognizing Pluralism," Journal of Democracy 7.2 (1996) 86-89

The War System in Islam

Islamic Links

National Institute for Research Advancement's (NIRA - Japan), "Political Islam: Pluralism Denied," By: Ryoji Tateyama

The Islamic Gateway

Cybermuslim Information Collective

World of Islam

Ahmed Hashem, "The War System In Islam"

Islam and Indigenous African Culture

J. Schacht. "Law and Justice" from the Cambridge Encyclopaedia of Islam, vol. II, pt. VIII, chapter. 4

Seyyed Hossein Nasr. Science and Civilization in Islam. New American Library. NY 1968.

Islamic political philosophy: Al-Farabi, Avicenna, Averroes

Timur Kuran, "The Genesis of Islamic Economics: A Chapter in the Politics of Muslim Identity, Social Research, Vol. 64, no. 2 (Summer 1997)

MSA News (Ohio State University Service for News About Muslims Throughout the World)

Fawaz A. Gerges, The Christian Johnson Chair in International Affairs and Middle East Studies, Sarah Lawrence College, "The Clinton Approach to Political Islam: Rhetoric vs. Reality: Three Case Studies: Egypt, Algeria, and Turkey"

Toby Lester, "What is the Koran?" Atlantic Monthly, January 1999

Kourosh Eshghipour, "THE ISLAMIC REVOLUTION'S IMPACT ON THE LEGAL AND SOCIAL STATUS OF IRANIAN WOMEN," The New England International and Comparative Law Annual, 1999

Charles Kurzman, "LIBERAL ISLAM: PROSPECTS AND CHALLENGES," Middle East Review of International Affairs, Volume 3, No. 3 September 1999

Emmanuel Sivan, "WHY RADICAL MUSLIMS AREN'T TAKING OVER GOVERNMENTS," Middle East Review of International Affairs, Volume 2, No. 2 - May 1998

Ali R. Abootalebi, "ISLAM, ISLAMISTS, AND DEMOCRACY," Middle East Review of International Affairs, Volume 3, No. 1 - March 1999

BeliefNet, "Save a Life, Save All Humanity--Take a Life, Kill All Humanity": What the Islamic scriptures really say about jihad and violence."

Ayatullah Morteza Mutahhari, Jihad: The Holy War of Islam and Its Legitimacy in the Quran, Translated by Mohammad Salman Tawhidi, Published by The Islamic Propagation Organization, P.O. Box No. 11365/7318, Islamic Republic of Iran

David Zeidan, "The Islamic Fundamentalist View of Life as a Perennial Battle," Middle East Review of International Affairs, Vol 5, no. 4, December 2001

Bernard Lewis, "The Roots of Muslim Rage, The Atlantic Monthly, September 1990

Stephen Zunes, "U.S. Policy Toward Political Islam." Foreign Policy in Focus, September 12, 2001

Translation of April 24, 2002 al-Qaeda document, "A statement from qaidat al-jihad regarding the mandates of the heroes and the legality of the operations in New York and Washington"

Sohail H. Hashmi, "Not What the Prophet Would Want: How Can Islamic Scholars Sanction Suicidal Tactics?" The Washington Post, 9 June 2002, p. B1

Edward Said, "Impossible Histories: Why the Many Islams Cannot be Simplified," Harper's, July 2002

Professor Abdullahi Ahmed An-Na'im, "The Islamic Counter-Reformation," New Perspectives Quarterly, Vol. 19, no. 1, Winter 2002

Jeremy Black, "Islam and the West: A Historical Perspective," Foreign Policy Research Institute, Volume 4, Number 2, May 2003

Middle East Media Research Monitor, "Waiting for the Mahdi: Official Iranian Eschatology Outlined in Public Broadcasting Program in Iran," Special Dispatch Series - No. 1436 - Iran, January 25, 2007

Geneive Abdo, "A More Islamic Islam," Washington Post, March 17, 2007

Middle East Media Research Institute, "The Islamic State in Iraq Announces Its 'Policy and Principles'," 23 March 2007

M. Feki and N. Maruani, "Liberal Values in Tunisian Islamic Schoolbooks, Middle East Media Research Institute, 30 March 2007

Middle East Media Research Institute, "Syrian-British Islamist Sheikh Omar Bakri, Shi'ite Liberal Intellectual Diyaa Al-Musawi, and Egyptian Intellectual Sheikh Gamal Al-Bana Debate the Meaning of Jihad on New TV," 30 March 2007

Middle East Media Research Institute, "Is it Legitimate to Use Nuclear Weapons Against the West? A Debate on An Islamist Forum," 12 April 2007

Farhang Jahanpour, "Islam and human rights," The Transnational Foundation for Peace and Future Research (Sweden), April 12, 2007

Middle East Media Research Institute, "Acting Palestinian Legislative Council Speaker Sheikh Ahmad Bahr, From Hamas, In Friday Sermon in Sudan: U.S., Israel Will Be Annihilated; Oh Allah, Kill the Jews and Americans 'To The Very Last One'," Excerpts from a sermon delivered by Ahmad Bahr, acting speaker of the Palestinian Legislative Council, from Hamas, which aired on Sudan TV on April 13, 2007.

Abid Ullah Jan, "Stand up or Perish as a Nation," Media Monitors Network, April 22, 2007

The Pew Research Center for the People and the Press, "Muslim Americans: Middle Class and Mostly Mainstream," War on Terror Concerns, 22 May 2007

Middle East Media Research Institute, "Turkish PM Erdogan in Speech During Term As Istanbul Mayor Attacks Turkey’s Constitution, Describing it As ‘A Huge Lie’: 'Sovereignty Belongs Unconditionally and Always To Allah'; 'One Cannot Be a Muslim, and Secular'," 23 May 2007

Middle East Media Research Institute, Special Dispatch-Egypt/Reform Project, "Egyptian Liberal Sayid Al-Qimni, London Islamist Hani Al-Sibai Debate Secularism, Fundamentalism in Arab World," No. 1661, July 20, 2007

John L. Esposito, "Want to Understand Islam? Start Here," Washington Post, July 22, 2007

The Daily Star (Lebanon), "Egyptian grand mufti says Muslims can convert," 25 July 2007

Middle East Media Research Institute, "Debate in Salafi Islam over Jihad Against 'Heretical' Arab Regimes, No.1668, July 27, 2007

Middle East Media Research Institute, "Egyptian Court in Controversial Ruling: Christians Who Convert to Islam Cannot Convert Back," Special Dispatch-Egypt, No. 1675, August 8, 2007

Middle East Media Research Institute, "Moroccan Liberal Abdelhamid Assassi: International Community Must Save Arab Society from "Pernicious and Lethal Disease" of Islamism," Special Dispatch-Morocco/North African Reformist Thinkers Project, No. 1676, August 9, 2007

Middle East Media Research Institute
,"Jihadist/Islamist Websites and Their Hosts (List II): Websites Supporting the Jihad in Iraq – Hosted in the U.S.," Special Dispatch-Jihad & Terrorism Studies Project, No. 1678, August 10, 2007

BBC News Online, "Islamists urge caliphate revival," 12 August 2007

Middle East Media Research Institute, "Hamas Representative in Lebanon Osama Hamdan Justifies Suicide Bombings in Buses: Israeli Soldiers Ride Those Buses," Special Dispatch-Hamas/Jihad & Terrorism Studies Project, No. 1682, August 16, 2007

Menahem Milson, "Jihad Today," Middle East Media Research Institute, Inquiry & Analysis, No. 411, December 20, 2007

E. Alshech, "Hamas: Between Liberating Palestine and Restoring the Global Islamic Caliphate," Middle East Media Research Institute, Inquiry & Analysis, No. 412, December 27, 2007

Middle East Media Research Institute, "Tunisian Progressive Basit bin Hasan: Why There's Opposition to Human Rights in Arab Society," Special Dispatch Series - No. 1810, January 11, 2008

Noah Feldman, "Why Sharia?" New York Times, 16 February 2008

D. Lav, "The Party of Jurisprudence vs. The Party of Action: Sayyed Imam, Ayman Al-Zawahiri, and the Split in the Jihad Movement," Middle East Media Research Institute, Jihad & Terrorism Studies Project, #444, May 29, 2008

Stéphane Lacroix, "Fundamentalist Islam at a Crossroads: 9/11, Iraq, and the Saudi religious debate," CSIS Middle East Program Gulf Roundtable, 29 May 2008

Middle East Media Research Institute, "Al-Qaeda Commander: Islam Doesn't Distinguish Between American People, American Gov't – Both Are Infidels and At War with Islam," No. 2000, July 24, 2008

Roula Khalaf, "Forgotten flowering," Financial Times, December 11 2008

Anthony Shadid, "Islamists’ Ideas on Democracy and Faith Face Test in Tunisia," New York Times, 17 February 2012

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