Documents Relating to American Foreign Policy

1898-1914


"Instances of Use of United States Forces Abroad, 1798 - 1993," by Ellen C. Collier, Specialist in U.S. Foreign Policy,
Foreign Affairs and National Defense Division, Washington DC: Congressional Research Service -- Library of Congress -- October 7, 1993

Richard Olney, "On American Jurisdiction in the Western Hemisphere," 1895

Grover Cleveland, "American Interests in the Cuban Revolution," 1896

Clara Barton. America's relief expedition to Asia Minor under the Red Cross. Journal Publishing Company, Meriden, Conn. 1896.

Edwin Munsell Bliss, Turkey and the Armenian Atrocities (Edgewood Publishing Company, 1896)

"Can the United States Afford to Fight Spain?" The North American Review, vol. 164, issue 483 (February 1897)

William McKinley, First Inaugural Address, Thursday, March 4, 1897

Letter from Secretary of State Sherman regarding the Political Situation in Cuba, 16 July 1897

J. Rendel Harris & B. Helen Harris, Letters from the Scenes of the Recent Massacres in Armenia (London: James Nisbet & Co., 1897)

Note of United States to Spain, September 23, 1897

Reply of the Duke of Tetuan to Mr. Woodford's Note of September 23, 1897

1898

"The World of 1898: The Spanish American War," Hispanic Division, US Library of Congress

CUBA IN 1898 by Josť M. Hernandez

Chronology of Cuba in the Spanish-American War

CREELMAN IN CUBA: HUMAN RIGHTS JOURNALISM AND THE "YELLOW" SEEDS OF WAR by Frederic A. Moritz

Albert Shaw, "The Blowing up of the Maine," 1898

"What Really Sank the Maine," edited by Thomas B. Allen, Naval History Magazine

1898-1998, Centennial of the Spanish-American War

Treaty of Peace Between the United States and Spain, 1898

The Spanish-American War by David Trask

Chronology of Spain in the Spanish-American War

The United States Army Yellow Fever Commission and the Spanish-American War:Science and Politics in Latin America, 1898-1904

New York Public Library, Online Exhibition of the Spanish-American War

How journalism influenced the Spanish/American War

Denby, Charles, Jr., "America's Opportunity in Asia," The North American Review, vol. 166, issue 494 (January 1898).

Scharf, J. Thomas, LL.D., "The Farce of the Chinese Exclusion Laws," The North American Review, vol. 166, issue 494 (January 1898).

US Army, General Orders Regarding an Increase in Military Manpower, 30 April 1898

Historical Museum of Southern Florida, The Spanish-American War

The United States Army Yellow Fever Commission and the Spanish-American War: Science and Politics in Latin America,

William McKinley and the Spanish-American War 1898-1904

Lewis Lapham, "The Consolations of Vanity," Harper's, Vol 294, no. 1771 (December 1897)

The Spanish-American War

Rebecca Livingston, "Sailors, Soldiers, and Marines of the Spanish-American War: The Legacy of USS Maine," Prologue: Quarterly of the National Archives and Records Administration, vol. 30, no. 1, Spring 1998

1898-1998 Centennial of the Spanish-American War

Cables from the US State Department to the American Ambassador in Spain, 1898

William McKinley, "War Message," 1898

William McKinley, "The Acquisition of the Philippines," 1898

A.B. Feuer, "Dewey's Daring Dash Into Manila Bay," Military History

"Black Jack in Cuba," General John J. Pershing’s Experience in the Spanish-American War by Kevin Hymel, AHF Research Associate

Jim Zwick, "The White Man's Burden" and Its Critics

EMERGENCE TO WORLD POWER, 1898-1902 Extracted from AMERICAN MILITARY HISTORY,  ARMY HISTORICAL SERIES, OFFICE OF THE CHIEF OF MILITARY HISTORY, UNITED STATES ARMY

Albert Beveridge: The March of the Flag, 1898

Literature of the Spanish-American War

ANNUAL REPORT OF MAJ. GEN. FITZHUGH LEE, COMMANDING SEVENTH ARMY CORPS., [Extracted from the Annual Report of the Secretary of War for 1898, 2:218-223]

Jim Zwick, Anti-Imperialism in the United States, 1898-1935

Stevenson, Sara Y., "Maximilian's Empire," The Century, vol. 55, issue 3 (Jan 1898).

Stevenson, Sara Y., "How an Austrian Archduke Ruled an American Empire," The Century, vol. 55, issue 4 (Feb 1898).

Wilson, James H, General, "America's Interests in China," The North American Review, vol. 166, issue 495 (February 1898).

Latane, John H, Ph.D., "Intervention of the United States in Cuba," The North American Review, vol. 166, issue 496 (March 1898).

Melville, G. W, Commodore, "Our Future on the Pacific - What We Have There to Hold and Win," The North American Review, vol. 166, issue 496 (March 1898).

Stevenson, Sara Y., "Mexican Society in Maximillian's Time, 1866," The Century, vol. 55, issue 5 (Mar 1898).

"War" by John Jay Chapman, City and State 4 (March 10, 1898).

Smith, John B., "Germany's Exclusion of American Fruits," The North American Review, vol. 166, issue 497 (April 1898).

Stevenson, Sara Y., "The Fall of Maximillian," The Century, vol. 55, issue 6 (Apr 1898).

Rubens, Horatio S., "The Insurgent Government in Cuba," The North American Review, vol. 166, issue 498 (May 1898).

Barton, Clara, "Our Work and Observations in Cuba," The North American Review, vol. 166, issue 498 (May 1898).

Olney, Richard, "International Isolation of the United States," The Atlantic Monthly, vol. 81, issue 487 (May 1898).

U.S. Senate Secret Debate concerning Hawai`i, May 31, 1898

"After the War with Spain," The Atlantic Monthly, vol. 81, issue 488 (June 1898).

"True Patriotism," Charles Eliot Norton, Address before the Men's Club of the Prospect Street Congregational Church, Cambridge, Mass., June 7, 1898.

Morgan, John T, Senator, "What Shall We Do with the Conquered Islands?" The North American Review, vol. 166, issue 499 (June 1898).

Fenn, Emory W., "Ten Months with the Cuban Insurgents," The Century, vol. 56, issue 2 (June 1898)

Taylor, Hannis, Hon., "Spain's Political Failure," The North American Review, vol. 166, issue 499 (June 1898).

"First Speech Against Imperialism," By William Jennings Bryan, Extract from speech delivered at Trans-Mississippi Exposition, Omaha, Neb., June 14, 1898.

Bancroft, Frederic, "Seward's Ideas of Territorial Expansion," The North American Review, vol. 167, issue 500 (July 1898).

Memorial filed by the Hawaiian Patriotic League (Hui Aloha `Aina) with the United States "Hawaiian Commission" for the creation of the territorial government. The commission was established on July 9, 1898 after President McKinley signed the joint resolution of annexation on July 7, 1898

US, Congress, Joint Resolution no. 55, To provide for annexing the Hawaiian Islands to the United States, July 7, 1898

"The Opinion of Massachusetts on 'Imperialism'," George F. Hoar, The Massachusetts Club, July 29, 1898, as reported in Boston Journal.

Distant Possessions: The Parting of the Ways, by Andrew Carnegie, Aug. 1898

"The Anglo-American Joint High Commission," The North American Review, Volume 167, Number 501, August 1898

Vanderlip, Frank A., "Facts about the Philippines," The Century, vol. 56, issue 4 (Aug 1898).

Loud, George A, Colonel, "The Battle of Manila. The Destruction of the Spanish Fleet Described by Eye-Witnesses. I. Narrative," The Century, vol. 56, issue 4 (Aug 1898).

Loud, George A, Colonel, "The Battle of Manila. The Destruction of the Spanish Fleet Described by Eye-Witnesses. II. Diary Written during the Battle," The Century, vol. 56, issue 4 (Aug 1898).

Evans, Joel C., "The Battle of Manila. The Destruction of the Spanish Fleet Described by Eye-Witnesses. IV. Narrative of the Gunner of the 'Boston'," The Century, vol. 56, issue 4 (Aug 1898).

Kindleberger, Charles P, Dr., "The Battle of Manila. The Destruction of the Spanish Fleet Described by Eye-Witnesses. Narrative of the Junior Surgeon of the Flag-Ship 'Olympia',". The Century, vol. 56, issue 4 (Aug 1898).

Protest filed with U.S. Minister Harold Sewall on August 6, 1898, by the Hawaiian Patriotic League (Hui Aloha 'Aina) and the Hawaiian Political Association (Hui Kalai'aina) against the Joint Resolution purporting to annex the Hawaiian Islands

"The Economic Basis of "Imperialism", by Charles A. Conant, The North American Review, Volume 167, Issue 502, September 1898

Hazeltine, Mayo W., "What Is to Be Done with Cuba?" The North American Review, vol. 167, issue 502 (September 1898).

Barrett, John, Hon., "The Problem of the Philippines," The North American Review, vol. 167, issue 502 (September 1898).

Dilke, Charles W, Right Hon. Sir, M.P., "The Problem of the Philippines," The North American Review, vol. 167, issue 502 (September 1898).

Colonel Roosevelt's Report to the Secretary of War, September 10th, 1898

Conant, Charles A., "The Economic Basis of 'Imperialism'," The North American Review, vol. 167, issue 502 (September 1898).

Ollivier, Emile, "America, Spain, and France," The Century, vol. 56, issue 5 (Sept 1898).

Woolsey, Theodore S., "Spain and Her American Colonies," The Century, vol. 56, issue 5 (Sept 1898).

Schurz, Carl, "Thoughts on American Imperialism," The Century, vol. 56, issue 5 (Sept 1898).

"Shall Cuba be Taken for Christ?," The American Missionary, vol. 52, issue 3 (Sept 1898).

Albert J. Beveridge, "March of the Flag," 16 September 1898

"The Parting of the Ways in the Foreign Policy of the United States," Felix Adler, International Journal of Ethics 9 (Oct. 1898).

Colonial Expansion, by David Starr Jordan, Oct. 1898

Hazeltine, Mayo W., "What Shall Be Done About the Philippines?" The North American Review, vol. 167, issue 503 (October 1898

United States Department of Justice, Legal Issues Raised by Proposed Presidential Proclamation to Extend the Territorial Sea, Opinions of the Office of Legal Counsel, vol. 12, p. 238-263, October 4, 1988, commenting on the annexation of Hawai‘i

Imperialism -- Its Dangers and Wrongs, by Samuel Gompers, Oct. 18, 1898

Worchester, Dean C., "Knotty Problems of the Philippines," The Century, vol. 56, issue 6 (Oct 1898).

Isolation and Imperialism, by George S. Boutwell, Speech before the Cantabrigia Club, Cambridge, Nov. 4, 1898

Colquhoun, Archibald R., "The Far Eastern Crisis," The North American Review, vol. 167, issue 504 (November 1898).

"The American Birthright and the Philippine Pottage," A Sermon Preached on Thanksgiving Day, 1898, by Henry Van Dyke, D.D., LL.D., Pastor of the Brick Church in New York City.

Fiske, B. A, Lieut, U.S.N., "Why We Won at Manila," The Century, vol. 57, issue 1 (Nov 1898).

Sigsbee, Chas. D, Capt, U.S.N., "Personal Narrative of the 'Maine'" By Her Commander. The Century, vol. 57, issue 1 (Nov 1898).

Sigsbee, Chas. D, Capt, U.S.N., "Personal Narrative of the 'Maine'" By Her Commander. The Century, vol. 57, issue 2 (Dec 1898).

Stadden, Corry M., "The Latest Aspects of the Nicaragua Canal Project," The North American Review, vol. 167, issue 505 (December 1898).

"The Savannah Interview," By William Jennings Bryan, Interview at Savannah, Ga., December 13, 1898

"The National Emblem," By William Jennings Bryan, Extract from speech delivered at Lincoln, Neb., December 23, 1898, at reception tendered by The Woman's Bimetallic League, The Lancaster County Bimetallic League, and The University Bimetallic Club

"Jefferson Versus Imperialism," By William Jennings Bryan, New York Journal, Dec. 25, 1898.

"Who Saves His Country Saves Himself" By William Jennings Bryan Extract from speech delivered at Nebraska Traveling Men's Bryan Club banquet, Lincoln, Neb., December 31, 1898.

"The Anti-Imperialist Movement, 1898-1921" By Jim Zwick

Lucien Sanial, Territorial Expansion, (New York: New York Labor News Co., [1898-1899]).

Murat Halstead, The Story of the Philippines, War Correspondent in America and Europe, Historian of the Philippine Expedition Chicago, 1898

1899

"The Bandit Press" by Morrison I. Swift, Chapter 9 of Imperialism and Liberty (Los Angeles: Ronbroke Press, 1899).

Sigsbee, Chas. D, Capt, U.S.N., "Personal Narrative of the 'Maine'" By Her Commander. The Century, vol. 57, issue 3 (Jan 1899).

Smalley, E. V., "A Word in Favor of the Panama Canal," The Century, vol. 57, issue 3 (Jan 1899).

"The Army," By William Jennings Bryan, New York Journal, Jan. 1, 1899.

George Hoar, "The Lust for Empire," 1899

Carnegie, Andrew, "Americanism versus Imperialism," The North American Review, vol. 168, issue 506 (January 1899).

Crowninshield, A. S, Capt, U.S.N., "Advantages of the Nicaragua Canal," The Century, vol. 57, issue 3 (Jan 1899)

"Cincinnati Speech" By William Jennings Bryan, Extract from speech delivered at Duckworth Club banquet, Cincinnati, Ohio, January 6, 1899

"Jackson Day Speech" at Chicago, By William Jennings Bryan, Extract from speech delivered at banquet of Bryan League, Chicago, Ill. January 7, 1899

"Ratify the Treaty, Declare the Nation's Policy" By William Jennings Bryan, New York Journal, Jan. 9, 1899

"Will it Pay?" By William Jennings Bryan, New York Journal, Jan. 15, 1899.

"The Conquest of the United States by Spain," William Graham Sumner, Lecture delievered before the Phi Beta Kappa Society of Yale University, Jan. 16, 1899, and published in the Yale Law Journal (Jan. 1899).

"Naboth's Vineyard" By William Jennings Bryan, Extract from speech delivered in Denver. Colo., January 17, 1899, at the joint invitation of the Chairmen of the Democratic, Populist and Silver Republican State Committees.

Alfred Russel Wallace, "America, Cuba, and the Philippines," 19 January 1899

"British Rule in India" By William Jennings Bryan, New York Journal, Jan. 22, 1899.

"Letter to the Secretary of State," Felipe Agoncillo, 24 January 1899

"Trampling Upon Patriotic Ideals," Louis F. Post, From The Ethics of Democracy (New York: Moody Publishing Co., 1903), Originally published in The Public 1 (Jan. 28, 1899).

"Memorial to the Senate of the United States," Accompanying letter to the Secretary of State, of date January 30, 1899. By Felipe Agoncillo, From The Anti-Imperialist, Vol. 1, Nos. 1 and 2 (June 3, 1899).

Seaman, Louis Livingston, "The United States Army Ration in the Tropics," The Century, vol. 57, issue 4 (Feb 1899).

"The White Man's Burden as Prophecy," Delivered on the floor of the Senate February 7, 1899 by Benjamin Tillman

"On Behalf of Hawaiian Women," By the National American Woman Suffrage Association, The Woman's Journal 30 (Feb. 11, 1899).

"The New Woman at Cavite," By Ellen Hayes, The Woman's Journal 30 (Feb. 11, 1899).

"Imperialism," William M. Salter, A Lecture before the Society for Ethical Culture of Chicago, in Steinway Hall, February 12, 1899

"Why Talk of the White Man's Burden?" By Bruce Grit, The Colored American (D.C.) (Feb. 25, 1899).

"How to Control the Philippines," By S. E. B., The Woman's Journal 30 (Feb. 25, 1899).

Stockton, Charles H, Commander, "The Capture of Enemy Merchant Vessels at Sea," The North American Review, vol. 168, issue 507 (February 1899).

Smith, Judson, Rev, D.D., "The Awakening of China," The North American Review, vol. 168, issue 507 (February 1899).

Shafter, William R, Major-General, U. S. V., "The Capture of Santiago de Cuba," By the Commander of the Expedition. The Century, vol. 57, issue 4 (Feb 1899).

"What Next?" By William Jennings Bryan, New York Journal, Feb. 12, 1899.

"Liberty, Not Conquest" By William Jennings Bryan, Extract from speech delivered at Democratic banquet, St Paul, Minn., February 14, 1899.

"It Rests with the People" By William Jennings Bryan, Extract from speech delivered at State University, Ann Arbor, Mich., February 18, 1899.

"America's Mission" By William Jennings Bryan, Extract from speech delivered at Washington Day banquet given by the Virginia Democratic Association at Washington, D.C., February 22, 1899.

"A Lament from Kentucky," By A Mother, Woman's Journal 30 (Feb. 25, 1899).

"The Philippine Tangle," William James, Boston Evening Transcript (March 1, 1899).

Carnegie, Andrew, "Americanism versus Imperialism - II," The North American Review, vol. 168, issue 508 (March 1899)

Squires, Grant, "Experiences of a War Censor," The Atlantic Monthly, vol. 83, issue 497 (March 1899).

Alfred Russel Wallace, "White Men in the Tropics, 9 March 1899

"The White Man's Burden," Editorial from the Washington Bee (D.C.) (March 11, 1899).

"Jose Rizal, Filipino Patriot," Herbert S. Bigelow, The Public 1 (March 18, 1899).

"The Shame of Imperialism," By Frances E. Russell, The Woman's Journal 30 (March 18, 1899).

"Our Relation to the Philippines," By Edith Olney, The Woman's Journal 30 (March 18, 1899).

"Our Duty Toward the Filipinos," By Frank Forbes, The Woman's Journal 30 (March 18, 1899).

"James Bryce on Philippine Question," By S. E. B., The Woman's Journal 30 (March 18, 1899).

"The Filipinos are Right," By Susan Look Avery, The Woman's Journal 30 (March 18, 1899).

"Negroes to Fight the Filipinos," San Francisco Call (March 20, 1899).

Greene, Francis V, Major-General, U. S. V., "The Capture of Manila," The Century, vol. 57, issue 5 (Mar 1899).

Greene, Francis V, Major-General, U. S. V., "The Capture of Manila," The Century, vol. 57, issue 6 (Apr 1899).

Wood, E. P, Commander, U.S.N., "The Battle of Manila Bay," The Century, vol. 57, issue 6 (Apr 1899).

McCutcheon, John T., "The Surrender of Manila," The Century, vol. 57, issue 6 (Apr 1899).

Miles, Nelson A, Major-General, "The War with Spain - I,". The North American Review, vol. 168, issue 509 (April 1899).

Sampson, William T, Rear-Admiral, U.S.N., "The Atlantic Fleet in the Spanish War," The Century, vol. 57, issue 6 (Apr 1899).

"The Philippine Symposium," By S. E. B., The Woman's Journal 30 (April 1, 1899).

Porter, Robert P, Hon., "The Future of Cuba," The North American Review, vol. 168, issue 509 (April 1899).

"Women and War," By William Lloyd Garrison, The Woman's Journal 30 (April 1, 1899).

"Incapable of Colonization," By Henry B. Blackwell, The Woman's Journal 30 (April 1, 1899).

"The New Militarism," William M. Salter, Ethical Addresses 6 (May 1899).

"Democracy or Militarism," By Jane Addams, Address before the Chicago Liberty Meeting, April 30, 1899

"Why We Protest," Jenkin Lloyd Jones, The Chicago Liberty Meeting (Chicago: Central Anti-Imperialist League, 1899).

"Liberty or Despotism," Edwin Burritt Smith, Address at the Chicago Liberty Meeting, April 30, 1899

"The Negro Should Not Enter the Army," Voice of Missions 7 (May 1, 1899).

Beresford, Charles, Rear-Admiral Lord, R.N., "China and the Powers," The North American Review, vol. 168, issue 510 (May 1899).

Soldiers' Letters, Being Materials for the History of a War of Criminal Aggression (Anti-Imperialist League, 1899).

Imperialism and Anti-Imperialism, George S. Boutwell, Address at a Conference of Anti-Imperialists, Boston, May 16, 1899.

"The Way Out," Submitted at an Anti-Imperialist meeting in Cambridge, Mass., May 17,1899, by Edward Atkinson

"Work of the Joint High Commission," The North American Review, vol. 168, issue 510 (May 1899).

Reed, T. B, Hon., "The Nicaragua Canal," The North American Review, vol. 168, issue 510 (May 1899).

Wood, Leonard, Major-General, "The Existing Conditions and Needs in Cuba," The North American Review, vol. 168, issue 510 (May 1899).

"Women Make an Appeal In Behalf of the Foundation Principles of the Republic," By the Women's Auxiliary of the Anti-Imperialist League (May 30, 1899).

"The Peace Conference: Its Possible Practical Results," The North American Review, vol. 168, issue 511 (June 1899).

Miles, Nelson A, Major-General, "The War with Spain - II," The North American Review, vol. 168, issue 511 (June 1899).

Ide, Henry C., "The Imbroglio in Samoa," The North American Review, vol. 168, issue 511 (June 1899).

Williams, Herbert Pelham, "The Outlook in Cuba," The Atlantic Monthly, vol. 83, issue 500 (June 1899).

"American Imperialism," George D. Herron, The Social Forum 1 (June 1, 1899).

"The Philippine War," By Lida Calvert Obenchain, The Woman's Journal 30 (June 3, 1899).

"A Letter from the Filipino Junta," By Galicano Apacible, The Public 2 (June 10, 1899).

An Officer of the Army of Occupation, "The Logic of Our Position in Cuba," The North American Review, vol. 169, issue 512 (July 1899).

Miles, Nelson A, Major-General, "The War with Spain - III," The North American Review, vol. 169, issue 512 (July 1899).

Alfred Russel Wallace, "The Causes of War, and the Remedies," 8 July 1899

"Letters to the Founding Meeting of the Central Anti-Imperialist League," By Edward Atkinson, Andrew Carnegie, George F. Edmunds, and Moorfield Storey, July 1899

"Hast Thou Killed, and Also Taken Possession?" An Unspoken Address, July 4, 1899 By Charles M. Sturges

"The Break-up of China and our Interest in It," The Atlantic Monthly, vol. 84, issue 502 (August 1899).

"The Constitutional Conflict in Finland," The North American Review, vol. 169, issue 513 (August 1899).

Wood, Leonard, Major-General, "The Present Situation in Cuba," The Century, vol. 58, issue 4 (Aug 1899).

Porritt, Edward, "Is the United States a Good Neighbor to Canada?" The New England Magazine, new series, vol. 20, issue 6 (Aug 1899).

Barrett, John, "The Paramount Power of the Pacific," The North American Review, vol. 169, issue 513 (August 1899)

Trueblood, Benjamin F., "International Peace Conference at the Hague," The New England Magazine, new series, vol. 20, issue 6 (Aug 1899).

"Where Liberty Is Not, There Is My Country," Thomas Wentworth Higginson, Harper's Bazaar (Aug. 12, 1899).

"The War of Despotism in the Philippine Islands," George S. Boutwell, Address at an anti-imperialist mass meeting, Springfield, Mass., Sept. 5, 1899

The Open Door Note, Submitted by U.S. Secretary of State, John Hay, September 6, 1899

"Aguinaldo's Case Against the United States," The North American Review, vol. 169, issue 514 (September 1899).

Dilke, Charles W, Right Honorable Sir, Bart, M.P., "America and England in the East," The North American Review, vol. 169, issue 515 (Ocober 1899).

"Stories of Benevolent Assimilation," By George Ade, Chicago Record (July 8 - Oct. 18, 1899)

Sampson, William T, Admiral, "Admiral Dewey as a National Hero," The Century, vol. 58, issue 6 (Oct 1899).

Mahan, A. T, Captain, "The Peace Conference and the Moral Aspect of War," The North American Review, vol. 169, issue 515 (October 1899).

"The Cause of the Philippines," Sixto Lopez, New York Evening Post (Oct. 17, 1899).

"The Policy of Imperialism," Address at the Anti-Imperialist Conference in Chicago, October 17, 1899 by Carl Schurz

"The Philippine Problem: How to Secure Peace," Views of William D. Howells, New York Evening Post (Oct. 17, 1899).

Low, Seth, LL.D., "The International Conference of Peace," The North American Review, vol. 169, issue 516 (November 1899).

Pavey, Frank D., "The "Open Door" Policy in the Philippines," The North American Review, vol. 169, issue 516 (November 1899).

The British Reply to the Open Door Note, November 30, 1899

The Russian Reply to the Open Door Note, December 18, 1899

Carnegie, Andrew, "The South African Question," The North American Review, vol. 169, issue 517 (December 1899).

"The Philippine Question From a Filipino Point of View," Sixto Lopez, Late Secretary to the Filipino Commission to Washington, The Independent 51 (Dec. 14, 1899).

"Through My Grandfather's Eyes: Ties that Bind The African American Soldier in the Filipino War for Liberation, 1899-1902," By Anthony L. Powell, Paper presented at the 1997 National Conference of African American Studies and Hispanic and Latino Studies in Houston, Texas.

"Patriotism and Imperialism," J. Laurence Laughlin, Liberty Tract No. 2 (Chicago: Central Anti-Imperialist League, 1899).

Open Letter to President McKinley By Colored People of Massachusetts, (1899).

The Bandit Press, By Morrison I. Swift, Chapter 9 of Imperialism and Liberty (Los Angeles: Ronbroke Press, 1899).

"Imperialists and Anti-imperialists:The Roots of American Non-Intervention Movements", by Jim Zwick

African Americans in the Anti-Imperialist Movement, By Jim Zwick, Syracuse University

"Mr Kipling's Call to America," by Alfred Webb, The Nation, 1899

"The Hypocrisy of It," Editorial in the Chicago Common, 1899

Rudyard Kipling, "The White Man's Burden," McClure's 1899

1900

Senator Albert Beveridge, "In Support of an American Empire,"1900

The Boxer Rebellion

The Boxer Rebellion of 1900

Fei Ch'i-hao: The Boxer Rebellion, 1900

Kenneth G. Clark, "The Boxer Uprising, 1899-1900"

Wounds in the Rain War Stories By Stephen Crane (New York: Frederick A. Stokes Co., 1900) (BoondocksNet Edition, 2000)

Sheffield, D. Z., "The Future of the Chinese People," The Atlantic Monthly, vol. 85, issue 507 (January 1900).

Albert J. Beveridge speaks on the Philippine Question, U.S. Senate, Washington, D.C., January 9, 1900

"Did Senator Hoar Cause the Philippine Rebellion?" Literary Digest 20 (Jan. 27, 1900).

Anderson, Thomas M, Brigadier-General, U.S.A., "Our Rule in the Philippines," The North American Review, vol. 170, issue 519 (February 1900).

Runcie, J. E, Major, "American Misgovernment of Cuba," The North American Review, vol. 170, issue 519 (February 1900).

"The Anti-Imperialistic Petition," By Louisa Southworth, National Single Taxer (Feb. 1900).

"Aguinaldo's Version of the Philippine Troubles," Literary Digest 20 (Feb. 3, 1900).

"The Puerto Rican Tariff Law" By William Jennings Bryan, New York Journal, Feb. 11, 1900.

Speech by William Jennings Bryan to the Democratic National Convention, "The Paralyzing Influence of Imperialism," 1900

Richard Olney, "The Growth of Our Foreign Policy," Atlantic Monthly, March 1900

Brooks, Sydney, "America and the War," The North American Review, vol. 170, issue 520 (March 1900).

Hazeltine, Mayo W., "The Proposed Hay-Pauncefote Treaty," The North American Review, vol. 170, issue 520 (March 1900).

Belmont, Perry, Hon., "The President's War Power and an Imperial Tariff," The North American Review, vol. 170, issue 520 (March 1900).

Porter, Robert P., "Our European Trade," The North American Review, vol. 170, issue 521 (April 1900).

US, Congress, Chapter 339., An Act to Provide a Government for the Territory of Hawai'i, April 30, 1900

Dilke, Charles W., "The American Policy in China," The North American Review, vol. 170, issue 522 (May 1900).

Reid, Gilbert, Rev, D.D., "The Powers and the Partition of China," The North American Review, vol. 170, issue 522 (May 1900).

"British and Russian Diplomacy," The North American Review, vol. 170, issue 523 (June 1900).

"To the American People," By the Central Filipino Committee, June 1900

"Disturbance in China," The American Missionary, vol. 54, issue 3 (July 1900).

"Anti-Imperialists' Fourth," Washington Sentinel (July 7, 1900)

Resolutions By the United Colored Democracy of Greater New York, July 11, 1900.

"Imperialism Not the "Paramount Issue"? By Henry B. Blackwell, The Woman's Journal 31 (July 14, 1900).

"The Question of Rights," By Laura A. Gregg, The Woman's Journal 31 (July 14, 1900).

Alfred Russel Wallace, "Imperial Might and Human Right," 21 July 1900

Address to the Public By the Negro National Democratic League, Chicago Broad-Ax (July 21, 1900).

"Sixto Lopez to General Wheeler," By Sixto Lopez, City and State 9 (July 26, 1900).

Imperialism, by William Jennings Bryan, August 8, 1900

William Jennings Bryan accepts the Democratic nomination for President and condemns U.S. policy in the Philippines, Indianapolis, IN, August 8, 1900

"The Japanese View of the Situation in China," The North American Review, vol. 171, issue 525 (August 1900).

Peffer, W. A., "Imperialism: America's Historic Policy," The North American Review, vol. 171, issue 525 (August 1900).

Barrett, John, "America's Duty in China," The North American Review, vol. 171, issue 525 (August 1900).

Boulger, Demetrius C., "America's Share in a Partition of China," The North American Review, vol. 171, issue 525 (August 1900).

"Imperialism" By William Jennings Bryan, Speech delivered by Mr. Bryan in response to the Committee appointed to notify him of his nomination to the presidency, at Indianapolis, August 8, 1900.

"Open Letter to Theodore Roosevelt," By Sixto Lopez, City and State 9 (Aug. 30, 1900).

Adams, Brooks, "Russia's Interest in China," The Atlantic Monthly, vol. 86, issue 515 (September 1900).

Ireland, Alleyne, "Commercial Aspect of the Yellow Peril," The North American Review, vol. 171, issue 526 (September 1900).

Foord, John, "The Root of the Chinese Trouble," The North American Review, vol. 171, issue 526 (September 1900).

Ogden, Rollo, "The Press and Foreign News," The Atlantic Monthly, vol. 86, issue 515 (September 1900).

Wilcox, Marrion, "The Filipino's Vain Hope of Independence," The North American Review, vol. 171, issue 526 (September 1900).

"Prostitution Licensed in the Philippines," By Henry B. Blackwell, The Woman's Journal 31 (Sept. 1, 1900).

"The Effect of Imperialism Upon the Negro Race," By Kelly Miller, Anti-Imperialist Broadside, No. 11 (Boston: Anti-Imperialist League, [1900]).

"Memorial Against State Regulation of Vice in Manila," By the National American Woman Suffrage Association, The Woman's Journal 31 (Sept. 8, 1900).

"Address to the Colored People of the United States," By Thomas Wentworth Higginson, William Lloyd Garrison, and George S. Boutwell (September 26, 1900).

Angell, James B., "The Crisis in China," The Atlantic Monthly, vol. 86, issue 516 (October 1900).

Tillman, B. R, Senator, "Bryan or McKinley? The Present Duty of American Citizens. II. Causes of Southern Opposition to Imperialism," The North American Review, vol. 171, issue 527 (October 1900).

"Anti-Imperialists and the 1900 Presidential Campaign" By Jim Zwick

"Is it to Be Extermination?" Interview with Sixto Lopez, City and State 9 (Nov. 22, 1900).

Beresford, Charles, Lord, "The Future of the Anglo-Saxon Race," The North American Review, vol. 171, issue 529 (December 1900).

Seaman, Louis Livingston, Major, M.D, LL.D., "Native Troops for Our Colonial Possessions," The North American Review, vol. 171, issue 529 (December 1900).

Smith, Goldwin, "War as a Moral Medicine," The Atlantic Monthly, vol. 86, issue 518 (December 1900).

"Educating Filipinos," By Sixto Lopez, City and State 9 (Dec. 20, 1900).

"Sixto Lopez's Conciliatory Appeal: A Message to the American Government and People Which Was Suppressed By Sixto Lopez From Sixto Lopez to the American People (1900).

"The "Tribes" in the Philippines," By Sixto Lopez (Boston: New England Anti-Imperialist League, 1900).

"A Christmas Letter to the President and People of the United States," By Sixto Lopez, City and State 9 (Dec. 27, 1900).

"A Moral Eclipse," By Elwood S. Corser, The Public 3 (Dec. 29, 1900).

1901

Macvane, S. M., "A Century of American Diplomacy," The Atlantic Monthly, vol. 87, issue 520 (Feb 1901).

William McKinley, Second Inaugural Address, Monday, March 4, 1901

The Platt Amendment, 1901

Wilson, Woodrow, "Democracy and Efficiency," The Atlantic Monthly, vol. 87, issue 521 (Mar 1901).

"America as a Political Factor in the Twentieth Century," Literary Digest 22 (March 9, 1901).

Internet Public Library, Willimam McKinley

"The Philippine Problem: A Proposition for a Solution," By Sixto Lopez (New York: Anti-Imperialist League of New York, 1901). Reprinted from The Outlook (April 13, 1901).

"To the American People," By the American Anti-Imperialist League (July 4, 1901).

"A Filipino Appeal to the President of the United States," By the Filipino Central Committee, The Public 4 (Dec. 14, 1901).

1902

GERMAN DIPLOMATIC DOCUMENTS, CHAPTER XI, THE JOINT ACTION AGAINST VENEZUELA, 1902-03, Source: German Diplomatic Documents, 1871-1914, selected and translated by E.T.S. Dugdale, Volume III, "The Growing Antagonism, 1898-1910," (New York: Harper & Brothers, 1930), pp. 160-65.

THE ANGLO-JAPANESE AGREEMENT, 30 January 1902

Gregory P. Nowell, "Hobson's Imperialism: A Defense"

"A Filipino Message," By Galicano Apacible, The Public 4 (March 8, 1902)

George Hoar, "Subjugation of the Philippines Iniquitous," May, 1902

"The Pesky Anti-Imperialist," New York Evening Post (May 3, 1902).

"Women of the Philippines," By Clemencia Lopez, The Woman's Journal (June 7, 1902). Address at the annual meeting of the New England Woman Suffrage Association, May 29, 1902

"The Philippine War: Two Ethical Questions" By Felix Adler, Ethical Addresses 9:10 (June 1902).

"Self-Government for the Filipinos: The Views of President Roosevelt and Mabini Stated in Their Own Words". [1902]

Elihu Root on the Formation of the General Staff System, STATEMENT BEFORE THE HOUSE COMMITTEE ON MILITARY AFFAIRS, WASHINGTON, DECEMBER 13, 1902

"Fact and Fancy About Losses in the Philippines," By Lucia Ames Mead, Boston Herald 13 (Dec. 25, 1902).

1903

Panama Canal Treaty, 1903

Convention Between the US And Panama (Panama Canal), 1903

"Exit Anti-Imperialism," The Independent 55 (Sept. 24, 1903).

"Reply by Clemencia Lopez," Remarks made at a farewell luncheon in her honor held in Boston, October 5, 1903

"Remarks at the Annual Meeting of the New England Anti-Imperialist League," By Mary A. Livermore (November 30, 1903).

"The Recognition of Panama," Address Delivered at Massachusetts Reform Club, December 5, 1903. By Moorfield Storey

"Anti-Imperialism Cost Lives: How Anti-Imperialism Cost the Lives of American Soldiers," Chapter 9 of Fred C. Chamberlain, The Blow from Behind: A Defence of the Flag in the Philippines (Boston: Lee and Shepard, 1903).

1904

Torpedo Attack, Port Arthur, Port Arthur, Liaotung Peninsula, 8 February 1904

Battle of Port Arthur, Port Arthur, Liaotung Peninsula, 9 February 1904

Battle of Chemulpo (Inchon), Korea, 9 February 1904

Admiral Togo's official report of the attack on Port Arthur, dated February 10, 1904

JAPANESE WAR DECLARATION, The Imperial Proclamation 10 February 1904

Aspects of the Russo-Japanese War, Dr Stewart Lone, University of New South Wales, Canberra: "The Japanese Military during the Russo-Japanese War,
1904-05: A Reconsideration of Command Politics and Public Images," Dr Philip Towle, Director of the Institute of International Studies, University of Cambridge:
"British Observers of the Russo-Japanese War," The Suntory Centre,Suntory and Toyota International Centres for Economics and Related Disciplines, London School of Economics and Political Science, Discussion Paper Houghton Street, No. IS/98/351 London WC2A 2AE, July 1998

Protocol Signed Between Korea and Japan, February 23, 1904

Operation Kesshitai (Forlorn Hope), Port Arthur, Liaotung Peninsula, 24th February 1904

Admiral Kamimura's official report of the attack on Vladivostok, 6 March 1904

Vladivostok Bombarded, Ussuri Bay, Vladivostok, 6 March 1904

Admiral Togo's Report Following the attack on Port Arthur, 10 March 1904

Admiral Makaroff Arrives, Port Arthur, Liaotung Peninsula, 10 March 1904

Admiral Makaroff's Battle Instructions, 17th March, 1904, No. 21.

The Death of Makaroff, Port Arthur, Liaotung Peninsula, 13 April 1904

Admiral Togo's official report following the death of Admiral Makaroff, 14 April 1904

WHAT HAS BEEN DONE IN THE PHILIPPINES: A RECORD OF PRACTICAL ACCOMPLISHMENTS UNDER CIVIL GOVERNMENT. BUREAU OF INSULAR AFFAIRS, WAR DEPARTMENT, WASHINGTON: GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE.1904

"Hawaii and the Philippines: A Study in Racial Evolution" by Sixto Lopez and Thomas T. Patterson, Springfield Weekly Republican (May 6, 1904).

Admiral Bezobrasov Strikes, Tsushima Strait, Eastern Channel, 15 June 1904

General Instructions to the Combined Fleet by Admiral Togo

The Battle of the Yellow Sea, The Yellow Sea, south of Encounter Rock, 10 August 1904

The Battle of Ulsan, Off Ulsan, Korea, in the Sea of Japan, 14 August 1904

Battle near La Perouse Strait, off Sakhalin Island, 20 August 1904

"The Panama Affair of 1903: Roosevelt--Hay Diplomacy," Open Letter to John Hay, By D. H. Chamberlain (From the New York Times, October 2, 1904.)

"Cruelty in the Congo Country," By Booker T. Washington, The Outlook 78 (Oct. 8, 1904).

"Theodore Roosevelt" By Edgar Lee Masters From The New Star Chamber and Other Essays (Chicago: Hammersmark Publishing Co., 1904).

"Implied Powers and Imperialism," By Edgar Lee Masters From The New Star Chamber and Other Essays (Chicago: Hammersmark Publishing Co., 1904).

"The Philippine Conquest," By Edgar Lee Masters From The New Star Chamber and Other Essays (Chicago: Hammersmark Publishing Co., 1904).

The Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine, Theodore Roosevelt’s Annual Message to Congress, 6 December 1904

"The Religious Argument" By William Jennings Bryan, The Commoner, Dec. 30, 1904.

1905

"Annexation," The Independent, 58 (Jan. 26, 1905).

Theodore Roosevelt, Inaugural Address, Saturday, March 4, 1905

Battle of Tsushima Strait, Eastern Channel, 27 May 1905

Battle of Tsushima Strait, Eastern Channel, 27 May 1905

Battle Southwest of Liancourt Rocks (Takeshima), 28 May 1905

Admiral Togo's Report of the Battle of Tsushima, 28 May 1905

The Battle of the Sea of Japan, 28 May 1905, The Official Version of the Japanese General Staff, Translated by Lieutenant W.Y. Hoadley, U.S.M.C.

The Destruction of the Russian Warship Svyetlana, Southwest of Matsushima, 28 May 1905

Last Fight of the Donskoi, South of Matsushima, 28 May 1905

James Bradley, "Diplomacy That Will Live in Infamy," New York Times, 5 December 2009

"Filipino Opinion of Reconcentration," El Renacimiento (June 30, 1905)

"The Russian Cavalry during the Russo-Japanese War," La Cavalerie Russe pendant la Guerre Russo-Japonaise par M. le capitaine Serge Nidvine, Translated from the French 'Journal des Sciences Militaires' August, 1905 by Captain Herschel Tupes, 1st U.S. Infantry, September 1905, Annotated & Footnoted by Jeffrey Leser, December 2002

Korean-Japanese Agreement, (November 17, 1905)

The Treaty of Portsmouth, 1905 - September 5, 1905.

1906

John W. Foster, "The Chinese Boycott," Atlantic Monthly, January 1906

Villari, Luigi. Fire and Sword in the Caucasus (London, T. F. Unwin, 1906)

"The Moro Massacre", by Moorfield Storey, 1906

"The Charge of the Wood Brigade", poem read in Congress by Representative John Sharp Williams, March 15, 1906

"An International Patriotism," By Jane Addams, The Public 9 (April 21, 1906).

"The Battle of the Crater," by Edward Abbot, 1906

"Manifest Destiny," a poem by D.H.Ingham, 1906

"International Responsibilities," By William Jennings Bryan, Address at the Independence Day Banquet of the American Society of London, July 4, 1906.

"GLEANINGS FROM THE SEA OF JAPAN," By Captain Seaton Schroeder; this paper received second honorable mention in the U. S. Naval Institute. The quoted portion is the third part of the contribution. Transcribed version reprinted in The Army and Navy Register, 7 July 1906)

"WHY THE RUSSIANS LOST IN THE RECENT WAR," From the New York Sun. Transcribed version reprinted in The Army and Navy Register, 11 August 1906)

"Reconcentration in the Philippines And Statistical Table Showing Results of "Benevolent Assimilation" on Population, Production and Prosperity in the Philippines" (Boston: Anti-Imperialist League, 1906).

MODERN TENDENCIES IN STRATEGY AND TACTICS AS SHOWN IN CAMPAIGNS IN THE FAR EAST By Lieutenant Colonel Yoda, Imperial Japanese Army, Translated from the Kuikosha Kiji (Officers Club Journal), No. 352, December 1906, by Captain E.F. Calthrop, R.F.A. Published in the Journal of the Royal United Service Institute, Volume LI

1907

NOTES UPON COMPANY AND BATTALION TACTICS AND THE EMPLOYMENT OF ARTILLERY IN BATTLE BASED ON THE EXPERIENCES OF THE RUSSO-JAPANESE WAR OF 1904-5 by Captain A. Degtyarev (1907)

The Anglo-Russian Entente, Agreement on Persia, 1907

"The Filipinos Do Not Want the "Wild Tribes" Exhibited," El Renacimiento (Jan. 3, 1907)

Internet Public Library, Theodore Roosevelt

CONVENTION FOR THE PACIFIC SETTLEMENT OF INTERNATIONAL DISPUTES, Adopted 18 October 1907 at the Hague

1908

Chris B. Rooney, "The International Significance of British Naval Missions to the Ottoman Empire, 1908-1914," Middle Eastern Studies, Vol. 34, no. 1 (January 1998)

"The Two Extremes," El Renacimiento (June 27, 1908).

"To Caesar All or Nothing," El Renacimiento (Nov. 13, 1908)

"Taft's Term of Probation," El Renacimiento (Nov. 30, 1908)

1909

"How the Filipinos Feel," El Renacimiento (March 1, 1909).

William Howard Taft, Inaugural Address, Thursday, March 4, 1909

"Taft in the Hour of His Exaltation," El Renacimiento (March 4, 1909).

Internet Public Library, William Howard Taft

"What Our Navy Costs Us," By Lucia Ames Mead, The World Today 16 (April 1909).

"For a Filipino Vice-Governor," El Renacimiento (June 23, 1909)

"THE IROQUOIS AND THE STRUGGLE FOR AMERICA," By Honorable Elihu Root, former NY Secretary of State and US Senator from New York, An address delivered at Cliff Haven, the Catholic Summer School, Plattsburgh, NY, on July 8, 1909

"Occupation Day," El Renacimiento (Oct. 12, 1909)

Paul Reinsch, "A Parliament for China," Atlantic Monthly, December 1909

"Buried Hopes," El Renacimiento (Dec. 9, 1909)

"Hurrah for Idleness!" El Renacimiento (Dec. 11, 1909)

Theodore Roosevelt, "The Threat of Japan," 1909

William Howard Taft, "Defense of a Higher Tariff," 1909

1910

"Farewell," El Renacimiento (Jan. 15, 1910)

"A Filipino View of the Sale of the Friar Lands," La Vanguardia (April 15, 1910).

"Agriculture and Independence," El Ideal (July 5, 1910).

Treaty of Annexation, Japan and Korea, (August 22, 1910)

Theodore Roosevelt, "The New Nationalism," 31 August 1910

"Americanizing the Moros," The New Republic, January 21, 1931

1911

"Philippine Independence and Territorial Integrity," El Ideal (Jan. 14, 1911).

"The Filipinos as 'Servants and Neighbors,'" El Ideal (June 10, 1911).

"The Basis of the Filipino Appeal," By Manuel L. Quezon, Resident Commissioner of the Philippine Islands, Sacramento Bee (July 27, 1911)

"The "Wild Tribes" and Other Filipinos," By Sixto Lopez (Boston: Anti-Imperialist League, 1911).

1912

Henry Cabot Lodge, "Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine," 1912

William Howard Taft, "Dollar Diplomacy," 1912

"Aggression in South America," By Erving Winslow, Excerpt from Report of the Thirteenth Annual Meeting of the Anti-Imperialist League (Boston: Anti-Imperialist League, 1912).

"The Right of the Philippines to Independence," By Manuel L. Quezon, Resident Commissioner from the Philippine Islands. The Filipino People 1 (Oct. 1912).

"The Filipino Youth and Their Ambition," By Maximo M. Kalaw, The Filipino People 1 (Oct. 1912).

"Wilson's Triumph," El Ideal (Nov. 6, 1912).

1913

Woodrow Wilson, "Repudiation of 'Dollar Diplomacy,'" 1913

Woodrow Wilson, "Rebuke to the Tariff Lobby," 1913

Ching Chun Wang, "A Plea for the Recognition of the Chinese Republic," Atlantic Monthly, January 1913

"Other Imperialistic Aggressions," By Erving Winslow, Excerpt from Report of the Fourteenth Annual Meeting of the Anti-Imperialist League (Boston: Anti-Imperialist League, 1913).

"The Democrats and the Anti-Imperialists," The Filipino People 1 (July 1913).

"Ultimate Independence for Filipinos" By William Jennings Bryan, The Commoner (Oct. 1913).

1914

The Campaign Against Philippine Independence, The Filipino People, Jan. 1914

"Intervention," By Frederick Starr, From Mexico and the United States: A Story of Revolution, Intervention and War (Chicago: The Bible House, 1914).

"Dean C. Worcester's Job In Connection with the American-Philippine Co.: Facts Which Throw Light Upon His Opposition to Administration's Policy" -- A Lecture Bureau and a Stock-Selling Enterprise -- a Highly Instructive Relationship, New York Evening Post (January 21, 1914).

"The Catholic Church and Philippine Independence," Editorial by La Vanguardia, Manila, in The Filipino People 2 (March 1914).

"Anti-Philippine Campaign Unsuccessful: Business Men Cold to Pessimistic Predictions," The Filipino People 2 (April 1914).

"Colombia and the Philippines," The Filipino People 2 (June 1914).

Woodrow Wilson, "The Tampico Affair," 1914

THE "BLACK-DRAGON" STATEMENT OF JAPANESE POLICY IN CHINA AS A RESULT OF THE EUROPEAN WAR. (WRITTEN IN 1914.)


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