Documents Relating to American Foreign Policy

Vietnam


Texas Tech University, The Vietnam Project

PBS, Battlefield Vietnam

Vietnam Veterans of America, "About the War"

"Cochin China," The North American Review, vol. 18, issue 42 (January 1824).

Heard, Augustine, "France and Indo-China," The Century, vol. 32, issue 3 (July 1886).

Biography of Ho Chi Minh, Ho Chi Minh, Selected Works (Hanoi, 1960-1962), Vol. 2

Christopher Goscha, On-Line Resource Site on the Indochina War at the Université du Québec à Montréal (UQÀM)

World War II

Press Release Issued by the Department of State on the Situation in Indochina on September 23, 1940

ACTING SECRETARY OF STATE SUMNER WELLES' STATEMENT ON JAPANESE-FRENCH COLLABORATION IN INDOCHINA, July 24, 1941

Memorandum by the Acting Secretary of State (Welles) on a Meeting Between President Roosevelt and the Japanese Ambassador on the Japanese Occupation of Indochina, 24 July 1941

AGREEMENT BETWEEN JAPAN AND FRANCE PLEDGING MILITARY CO-OPERATION IN DEFENSE OF INDO-CHINA, Tokyo, July 29, 1941

STATEMENT BY JAPANESE BOARD OF INFORMATION ON "REINFORCING JAPANESE FORCES IN INDO-CHINA," Tokyo, August 1, 1941

Oral Statement on Indochina and the Oil Embargo Handed by the Japanese Ambassador (Nomura) To the Secretary of State on August 6, 1941

Memorandum Regarding a Conversation Between the Secretary of State and the Japanese Ambassador (Nomura), 8 August 1941

Document on Indochina Handed by the Secretary of State to the Japanese Ambassador (Nomura), 8 August 1941

Roosevelt and Stalin Discuss the Future of French Rule in Indochina, Teheran Conference, November 28, 1943

Franklin Roosevelt Memorandum to Cordell Hull on French Rule in Indochina, January 24, 1944

Franklin Roosevelt on French Rule in Indochina, Press Conference, February 23, 1945

Franklin Roosevelt Conversation with Charles Taussig on French Rule in Indochina, March 15, 1945

Exchange of Memoranda Between Secretary of State Stettinius and President Roosevelt on the the Role of the Free French in Indochina, March 1945

1945-1950

Abdication of Bao Dai, Emperor of Annam, August 1945

DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE OF THE DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF VlET-NAM, (September 2, 1945)

The Pentagon Papers, Gravel Edition, Volume 1, Chapter 1, "Background to the Conflict, 1940-50"

Agreement on the Independence of Vietnam, (MARCH, 1946)

Accord Between France and the Democratic Republic of Vietnam, 6 March 1946

Cold War International History Project, Working Paper #34: Changes in Mao Zedong's Attitude toward the Indochina War, 1949-1973

Robert J. Hanyok, Spartans in Darkness: American SIGINT and the Indochina War, 1945-1975, Center for Cryptologic History, National Security Agency
2002, "Prelude: Indochina Before 1950"

1950

The Pentagon Papers, Gravel Edition, Volume 1, Chapter 2, "U.S. Involvement in the Franco-Viet Minh War, 1950-1954"

Robert J. Hanyok, Spartans in Darkness: American SIGINT and the Indochina War, 1945-1975, Center for Cryptologic History, National Security Agency
2002, Chapter 1 - Le Grand Nombre Des Rues Sans Joie: [Deleted] and the Franco-Vietnamese War, 1950-1954

United States Recognition of Increased Sovereignty in the State of Viet-Nam: Note From the United States Ambassador-at-Large to the Chief of State of Viet-Nam, January 27, 1950

UNITED STATES RECOGNITION OF VIET-NAM, LAOS, AND CAMBODIA: Statement by the Department of State, February 7, 1950

Report by the National Security Council on the Position of the United States with Respect to Indochina, 27 February 1950, pp. 361-2.

Letter from Undersecretary of State Dean Rusk to Major General James H. Burns on US Policy Toward Indochina, 7 March 1950

Memorandum from General Omar Bradley, Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff to the Secretary of Defense on the Strategic Assessment of Southeast Asia, 10 April 1950

R. Allen Griffin, head of the special survey mission to Indochina, Memorandum to the Secretary of State Acheson on a Conference on Indochina, 4 May 1950

EXTENSION OF MILITARY AND ECONOMIC AID: Statement by the Secretary of State, May 8, 1950

US, Department of State, Press Release on the Griffin Mission to Indochina, 11 May 1950

Secretary of State Statement on Extension of Military and Economic Aid to Indochina, May 8, 1950, Department of State Bulletin, May 22, 1950

ECONOMIC AID PROGRAM: Note From the American Chargé d'Affaires at Saigon to the Chiefs of State of Viet-Nam, Laos, and Cambodia, May 24, 1950

US, Department of State, Press Release on an Economic Aid Mission to Indochina, 25 May 1950

US, Department of State, Letter from Dean Acheson to Robert Griffin on the Report of the Special Economic Mission to Southeast Asia," 3 June 1950

George Kennan, Memoirs, 1950-1963 (New York: Pantheon Books, 1972, pp. 58-60

Press Release by President Truman Announcing Military Assistance to Indochina, 27 June 1950

Summary of Existing Policy on Indochina for the Joint Chiefs of Staff, 25 July 1950

U.S., National Intelligence Estimate, NIE-15, "Probable Soviet Moves to Exploit the Present Situation," 11 December 1950

1951

The Pentagon Papers, Gravel Edition, Volume 1, Chapter 4, "U.S. and France in Indochina, 1950-56"

US, NSC 100, "Recommended Policies and Actions in Light of the Grave World Situation ," 11 January 1951

Memorandum by John Paton Davies, Jr., "Spring and Summer Prospects," Washington, DC, 23 January 1951

United States Minutes of the First Meeting Between President Truman and French Prime Minister Pleven, Cabinet Room of the White House, January 28, 1951, 2:30-5 p.m.

Memorandum of Conversation, by the Assistant Chief of the Policy Reports Staff (Barnes), January 29, 1951. 

United States Minutes of the Second Meeting Between President Truman and French Prime Minister Pleven, Cabinet Room of the White House, January 30, 1951, 11 a.m.-12:30 p.m.

President Truman's Radio Report to the American People on Korea and on U.S. Policy in the Far East, April 11, 1951

President Truman's Special Message to Congress on Mutual Security Program, May 24, 1951

Mutual Defense Treaty Between the United States and the Republic of the Philippines; August 30, 1951

Security Treaty Between the United States, Australia, and New Zealand (ANZUS); September 1, 1951

Security Treaty Between the United States and Japan; September 8, 1951

The Military Aid Program: Statement by the Departments of State and Defense, September 23, 1951

The Military Aid Program: Statement by the Departments of State and Defense, September 23, 1951, Department of State Bulletin, October 8, 1951

Eisenhower on the Strategic Link between French Forces in Europe and Vietnam

1952

NSC Staff Study on United States Objectives and Courses of Action with respect to Communist Aggression in Southeast Asia, 13 February 1952

Memorandum of Conversation between Secretary of State Acheson and British Ambassador Oliver Franks, 17 June 1952

Statement by Secretary of State Acheson on his Meeting with M. Jean Letourneau, 18 June 1952

The Defense of Indochina: Communiqué Regarding Discussions Between Representatives of the United States, France, Viet-Nam, and Cambodia, June 18, 1952

Statement of Policy by the National Security Council on United States Objectives and Courses of Action with Respect to Southeast Asia, NSC 124/2, 25 June 1952

Summary Minutes, Ministerial Talks in London, Anthony Eden and the American Secretary of State, 26 June 1952

Support by NATO of the French Union Defense Efforts in Indochina: Resolution Adopted by the North Atlantic Council, December 17, 1952

1953

Support by NATO of the French Union Defense Efforts in Indochina: Resolution Adopted by the North Atlantic Council, December 17, 1952, Department of State Bulletin, January 5, 1953

United States Support of Laos Against the Viet Minh Invasion: Statement by the Department of State, April 17, 1953

United States Emergency Aid to Laos and Thailand in the Face of Viet Minh Aggression: Statement by the Secretary of State at a News Conference, May 9, 1953

National Intelligence Estimate-91, "Probable Developments in Indochina through 1954," 4 June 1953

President Eisenhower's Remarks on the Importance of Indochina at the Governors' Conference, August 4, 1953

Memorandum for the National Security Council on Further US Support for France and the Associated States of Indochina, 5 August 1953

Memorandum for the Secretary of Defense by the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff on the Navarre Concept for Operations in Indochina, 28 August 1953

The Consequences of Direct Chinese Communist Intervention in Indochina: Address by the Secretary of State, September 2, 1953 (Excerpt)

Additional United States Aid for France and Indochina: Joint Franco-American Communiqué, September 30, 1953

Mutual Defense Treaty Between the United States and the Republic of Korea; October 1, 1953

Joint Franco-American Communique, Additional United States Aid for France and Indochina, September 30, 1953, Department of State Bulletin, October 12, 1953

Statement of Policy by the National Security Council on Basic National Security Policy, 30 October 1953

US, Central Intelligence Agency, Special Estimate, SE-53, Probable Communist Reactions to Certain Possible US Courses of Action in Indochina through 1954, 15 December 1953

1954

US, National Security Council, NSC 5405, "United States Objectives and Courses of Action With Respect to Southeast Asia," 16 January 1954

Memorandum for the Record, Meeting of the President's Special Committee on Indochina, 29 January 1954

President Eisenhower's News Conference, February 10, 1954, Public Papers of the Presidents, 1954

Plans for the Geneva Conference on Korea and Indochina: Quadripartite Communiqué of the Berlin Conference, February 18, 1954

Major Harry D. Bloomer, Marine Corps University Command and Staff College, "An Analysis Of The French Defeat At Dien Bien Phu," CSC 1991

CNN, Vietnam, The Battle of Dien Bien Phu

Dien Bien Phu

Pierre Asselin, "New Perspectives on Dien Bien Phu," Explorations in Southeast Asian Studies, A Journal of the Southeast Asian Studies Student Association, Vol 1 No 2 Fall 1997

Shifting Images of the Dien Bien Phu Crisis of 1954 by P.A.J. (Pieter) Meulendijks, Catholic University Nijmegen

Telegram, Communist Party of the Soviet Union Central Committee to CCP [Chinese Communist Party] Central Committee, via [Soviet Ambassador to the People’s Republic of China (PRC)] Comrade [Pavel F.] Yudin, Instructions on the Geneva Conference, February 26 1954

“Preliminary Opinions on the Assessment of and Preparation for the Geneva Conference,” Prepared by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs (drafted by [Premier and Minister of Foreign Affairs of the People’s Republic of China (PRC)] Zhou Enlai) and approved in principle at a meeting of the CCP [Chinese Communist Party] Central Secretariat (excerpt), March 02 1954

Memorandum for the Secretary of Defense by the Joint Chiefs of Staff, "Reappraisal of General O'Daniel's Status with Respect ot Indochina," 5 March 1954

Telegram, [Ambassador to the Soviet Union and Vice Minister of Foreign Affairs of the People’s Republic of China (PRC)] Zhang Wentian to the [PRC] Foreign Ministry, and report to [Premier and Minister of Foreign Affairs of the PRC] Zhou Enlai and the [Chinese Communist Party (CCP)] Central Committee, Concerning reporting the preliminary opinions of our side toward the Geneva Conference to the Soviet side, March 06 1954

Memorandum for the Secretary of Defense by the Joint Chiefs of Staff, "Preparation of Department of Defense Views Regarding Negotiations on Indochina for the Forthcoming Geneva Conference," 12 March 1954

Memorandum for the President's Special Committee, "Military Implications of the US Position on Indochina in Geneva," 17 March 1954

Letter from C.E. Wilson on General Erskine's Recommendations, 23 March 1954

Views of the United States on the Eve of the Geneva Conference: Address by the Secretary of State, March 29, 1954

Memorandum from Arthur Radford for the Joint Chiefs of Staff for the President's Special Committee on Indochina, "Discussions with General Paul Ely," 29 March 1954

“A Comprehensive Solution for Restoring Peace in Indochina” (Draft), prepared by the Vietnam Group in the Chinese delegation attending the Geneva Conference
April 04 1954

Address by Alfred le Sesne Jenkins, Officer in Charge, Chinese Political Affairs, before the American Academy of Political and Social Science, Philadelphia, Pa., "Present United States Policy Toward China," April 2, 1954, Department of State Bulletin, April 26, 1954

Telegram from Secretary of State Dulles to Dillon and Aldrich on Conversations with the French, 3 April 1954

“A Comprehensive Solution for Restoring Peace in Indochina” (Draft), prepared by the Vietnam Group in the Chinese delegation attending the Geneva Conference
April 04 1954

Telegram from Secretary of State Dulles to Dillon and Aldrich on Conversations with the British, 4 April 1954

Telegram from Dillon to Dulles on Conversations with the French about Dien Bien Phu, 5 April 1954

US, National Security Council, Action No. 1074-a, on possible US intervention in Indochina, 5 April 1954

US, Army Position on NSC Action No. 1074-a, no date

US, Special Committee Report on Southeast Asia--Part II, 5 April 1954

Telegram to Ambassador Dillon in Paris from Secretary of State Dulles on US Position on Indochina, 5 April 1954

Telegram from Ambassador Dillon in Paris to Secretary of State Dulles on Bidault's Position on the US in Indochina, 5 April 1954

Telegram from Ambassador Aldrich in London to Secretary of State Dulles on the British View of Indochina, 6 April 1954

Telegram, [Ambassador to the Soviet Union and Vice Minister of Foreign Affairs of the People’s Republic of China (PRC)] Zhang Wentian to [Vice Minister of Foreign Affairs of the PRC] Li Kenong, Concerning the Soviet suggestion on propaganda work at Geneva, April 06 1954

President Eisenhower's News Conference, April 7, 1954, Public Papers of the Presidents, 1954, p. 382

Remarks Made by Under Secretary Walter Bedell Smith in Answer to Questions Prepared for Use on "The American Week" over the CBS Television Network, April 11, 1954, on the Importance of Indochina, Department of State Bulletin, April 19, 1954

Views of the United States and France on the Eve of the Geneva Conference: Joint Statement by the Secretary of State and the French Foreign Minister, April 14, 1954

Telegram, [Premier and Minister of Foreign Affairs of the People’s Republic of China (PRC)] Zhou Enlai to [Chairman of the Central Committee of the Chinese Communist Party (CC CCP)] Mao Zedong, [Vice Chairman of the CC CCP] Liu Shaoqi, and the Central Committee of the CCP, concerning [Premier of the Soviet Union Georgy M.] Malenkov’s conversation with Zhou Enlai about the Vietnam issue, April 23 1954

Statement by Jameson Parker, Department Press Officer, read to Correspondents April 17, 1954, on U.S. Policy Toward Indochina, Department of State Bulletin, April 26, 1954

Telegram, [Premier and Minister of Foreign Affairs of the People’s Republic of China (PRC)] Zhou Enlai to [Chairman of the Central Committee of the Chinese Communist Party (CC CCP)] Mao Zedong and Others, Regarding Speeches at the Conference and the Situation at the First Plenary Session, April 26 1954

Telegram, [Premier and Minister of Foreign Affairs of the People’s Republic of China (PRC)] Zhou Enlai to [Chairman of the Central Committee of the Chinese Communist Party (CC CCP)] Mao Zedong and Others, Regarding a Meeting with British Foreign Secretary Eden, May 01 1954

Statement by Secretary Dulles Made at Augusta, Georgia, April 19, 1954, on Conversations in London and Paris Concerning Indochina, Department of State Bulletin, May 3, 1954

Telegram from Secretary of State Dulles on Conversation with Anthony Eden about Indochina, 25 April 1954

Telegram from Secretary of State Dulles on Conversation with Eden and Bidault about Indochina, 26 April 1954

Telegram from Secretary of State Dulles on Conversation with Eden about Indochina, 27 April 1954

US, Central Intelligence Agency, NIE 63-54, "Consequences Within Indochina of the Fall of Dien Bien Phu," 28 April 1954

Telegram from Secretary of State Dulles on the Consequences of the Seige of Dien Bien Phu, 29 April 1954

The Pentagon Papers, Gravel Edition, Volume 1, Chapter 3, "The Geneva Conference, May-July, 1954"

Remarks made by Major General Thomas J.H. Trapnall, Jr., former Chief of the Military Assistance Advisory Group (MAAG), Indochina, 3 May 1954

Preparations for the Indochina Phase of the Geneva Conference: Statement by the President, May 5, 1954

Report by Secretary of State Dulles on Geneva and Indochina, NSC 195th Meeting, 6 May 1954

Telegram from Secretary of State Dulles to Geneva on Status of Conference Issues, 6 May 1954

Midway in the Geneva Conference: Address by the Secretary of State, May 7,1954

Address by Secretary Dulles Delivered to the Nation over Radio and Television, May 7, 1954, The Issues at Geneva, Department of State Bulletin, May 17, 1954, p. 740 and p. 744:

US, Secretary of State, John Foster Dulles, "On the Fall of Dien Bien Phu," 7 May 1954

Memorandum of a Presidential Discussion on the Matter of Sending US Forces to Indochina, 7 May 1954

Excerpts from the First Plenary Session, the Geneva Conference, Indochina Phase, 8 May 1954

Memorandum from Brigadier General C.H. Bonesteel, III to the Secretary of Defense,"Future US Action Regarding Indochina," 9 May 1954

Telegram, [Chinese Communist Party] CCP Central Committee to [Premier and Minister of Foreign Affairs of the People’s Republic of China (PRC)] Zhou Enlai, Reply to Zhou Enlai’s 9 May 1954 Telegram, May 09 1954

Telegram, [Premier and Minister of Foreign Affairs of the People’s Republic of China (PRC)] Zhou Enlai to [Chairman of the Central Committee of the Chinese Communist Party (CC CCP)] Mao Zedong and others, Regarding the Situation of the First Plenary Session, May 09 1954

Memorandum from Secretary of State Dulles on Instructions to the American Delegation at Geneva, 12 May 1954

Telegram, [Premier and Minister of Foreign Affairs of the People’s Republic of China (PRC)] Zhou Enlai to [Chairman of the Central Committee of the Chinese Communist Party (CC CCP)] Mao Zedong and others, Regarding the Second Plenary Session (Excerpt), May 12 1954

President Eisenhower's News Conference, May 12, 1954, Public Papers of the Presidents, 1954

Telegram, [Premier and Minister of Foreign Affairs of the People’s Republic of China (PRC)] Zhou Enlai to [Chairman of the Central Committee of the Chinese Communist Party (CC CCP)] Mao Zedong and Others, Regarding the Situation at the Tenth Plenary Session, May 14 1954

Minutes, Conversation between [Premier and Minister of Foreign Affairs of the People’s Republic of China (PRC)] Zhou Enlai and [British Foreign Secretary] Anthony Eden, May 14 1954

Telegram, [Premier and Minister of Foreign Affairs of the People’s Republic of China (PRC)] Zhou Enlai to [Chairman of the Central Committee of the Chinese Communist Party (CC CCP)] Mao Zedong and Others, Requesting Instructions on the Korean Issue and Regarding the Situation at the Fourth Plenary Session on the Indochina Issue, May 15 1954

Telegram, Reply from the [Chinese Communist Party] CCP Central Committee to [Premier and Minister of Foreign Affairs of the People’s Republic of China (PRC)] Zhou Enlai’s Telegrams of 15 May [and] 17 May 1954, May 17 1954

Memorandum from Secretary of the Army, Robert T. Stevens, on Indochina, 19 May 1954

Telegram, [Premier and Minister of Foreign Affairs of the People’s Republic of China (PRC)] Zhou Enlai’s telegram to [Chairman of the Central Committee of the Chinese Communist Party (CC CCP)] Mao Zedong and others, Regarding the Second Restricted Session, May 19 1954

Telegram, [Premier and Minister of Foreign Affairs of the People’s Republic of China (PRC)] Zhou Enlai’s telegram to [Chairman of the Central Committee of the Chinese Communist Party (CC CCP)] Mao Zedong and others, Regarding the Situation of the Third Restrictive Session, May 20 1954

Memorandum from Arthur Radford, Chairman, Joint Chiefs of Staff, "Defense of Southeast Asia in the Event of Loss of Indochina to the Communists," 21 May 1954

Telegram, [Premier and Minister of Foreign Affairs of the People’s Republic of China (PRC)] Zhou Enlai’s telegram to [Chairman of the Central Committee of the Chinese Communist Party (CC CCP)] Mao Zedong and others, on the situation of the fourth restrictive session, May 22 1954

Conditions for United States Direct Intervention in Indochina: Transcript of a News Conference of the Secretary of State, May 25, 1954 (Excerpt)

Memorandum from Arthur Radford, Chairman, Joint Chiefs of Staff, "Studies with Respect to Possible US Action Regarding Indochina," 26 May 1954

Memorandum from Robert Cutler, Special Assistant to the President on the JCS Memorandum, 26 May 1954

Telegram from Ambassador Dillon to the Secretary of State Dulles on French Plans in Indochina, 27 May 1954

Minutes, [Director of the Staff Office of the People’s Republic of China (PRC) Ministry of Foreign Affairs] Wang Bingnan’s Meeting with [President of the International Federation on Human Rights Joseph] Paul-Boncour, May 30 1954

Telegram, [Premier and Minister of Foreign Affairs of the People’s Republic of China (PRC)] Zhou Enlai’s telegram to [Chairman of the Central Committee of the Chinese Communist Party (CC CCP)] Mao Zedong and others, Regarding the Situation of the Eighth Restrictive Session, May 30 1954

Telegram, [Premier and Minister of Foreign Affairs of the People’s Republic of China (PRC)] Zhou Enlai to [Chairman of the Central Committee of the Chinese Communist Party (CC CCP)] Mao Zedong and Others, Regarding the Situation at the Ninth Restricted Session, June 01 1954

Minutes, [Premier and Minister of Foreign Affairs of the People’s Republic of China (PRC)] Zhou Enlai’s Meeting with [French Minister of Foreign Affairs Georges] Bidault, June 01 1954

Telegram, [Premier and Minister of Foreign Affairs of the People’s Republic of China (PRC)] Zhou Enlai to [Chairman of the Central Committee of the Chinese Communist Party (CC CCP)] Mao Zedong regarding Contact with [British Foreign Secretary Anthony] Eden and [French Minister of Foreign Affairs Georges] Bidault, June 02 1954

Telegram, [Premier and Minister of Foreign Affairs of the People’s Republic of China (PRC)] Zhou Enlai to [Chairman of the Central Committee of the Chinese Communist Party (CC CCP)] Mao Zedong and Others, Regarding the Situation at the Tenth Restricted Session, June 03 1954

Telegram, [Premier and Minister of Foreign Affairs of the People’s Republic of China (PRC)] Zhou Enlai to [Chairman of the Central Committee of the Chinese Communist Party (CC CCP)] Mao Zedong and Others, Regarding the Situation at the Eleventh Restricted Session, June 04 1954

Telegram, [Premier and Minister of Foreign Affairs of the People’s Republic of China (PRC)] Zhou Enlai to [Chairman of the Central Committee of the Chinese Communist Party (CC CCP)] Mao Zedong and Others, Regarding the Situation at the Twelfth Restricted Session, June 05 1954

Telegram, [Premier and Minister of Foreign Affairs of the People’s Republic of China (PRC)] Zhou Enlai to [Chairman of the Central Committee of the Chinese Communist Party (CC CCP)] Mao Zedong and Others, Regarding the Situation at the Thirteenth Plenary Session, June 06 1954

Minutes, [Director of the Staff Office of the People’s Republic of China (PRC) Ministry of Foreign Affairs] Wang Bingnan’s Meeting with [French Ambassador to Switzerland Jean] Chauvel and [Counselor to the French delegation, Colonel Jacques] Guillermaz, June 06 1954

Telegram from Secretary of State Dulles to the US Delegation in Geneva, 7 June 1954

Telegram, [Premier and Minister of Foreign Affairs of the People’s Republic of China (PRC)] Zhou Enlai to [Chairman of the Central Committee of the Chinese Communist Party (CC CCP)] Mao Zedong, concerning consultations among the Chinese, Soviet and Vietnamese delegations, June 07 1954

Telegram from the US Delegation in Geneva to Secretary of State Dulles, 9 June 1954

Telegram, [Vice Minister of Foreign Affairs of the People’s Republic of China (PRC)] Li Kenong to the [Chinese] Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Regarding the Chinese delegation’s Meeting with the delegations of various popular French [organizations], June 09 1954

Telegram from the US Delegation in Saigon to Secretary of State Dulles, 10 June 1954

Telegram, [Premier and Minister of Foreign Affairs of the People’s Republic of China (PRC)] Zhou Enlai to [Premier and Minister of Foreign Affairs of the People’s Republic of China (PRC)] Mao Zedong and Others, Regarding Zhou’s Conversation with [French Minister of Foreign Affairs Georges] Bidault, June 10 1954

The Threat of Direct Chinese Communist Intervention in Indochina: Address by the Secretary of State, June 11, 1954 (Excerpt)

Telegram, [Premier and Minister of Foreign Affairs of the People’s Republic of China (PRC)] Zhou Enlai to [Chairman of the Central Committee of the Chinese Communist Party (CC CCP)] Mao Zedong and others, Regarding the Seventh Plenary Session, June 11 1954

Telegram, [Premier and Minister of Foreign Affairs of the People’s Republic of China (PRC)] Zhou Enlai to [Chairman of the Central Committee of the Chinese Communist Party (CC CCP)] Mao Zedong and Others, Regarding the Situation at the Fourteenth Plenary Session, June 13 1954

Telegram from Ambassador Dillon to Secretary of State Dulles, 14 June 1954

Telegram from Secretary of State Dulles to the Geneva Delegation, 14 June 1954

Telegram from Secretary of State Dulles to the Paris Delegation, 14 June 1954

Minutes, Meeting between [Director of the Staff Office of the People’s Republic of China (PRC) Ministry of Foreign Affairs] Wang Bingnan and the French Delegation Member [Jean] Paul-Boncour (Summary), June 14 1954

US, Central Intelligence Agency, SNIE 10-4-54, "Communist Reactions to Certain Courses of Action with Respect to Indochina," 15 June 1954

Minutes, Conversation between [Ambassador to the Soviet Union and Vice Minister of Foreign Affairs of the People’s Republic of China (PRC)] Zhang Wentian and [British Deputy Under Secretary for Foreign Affairs for Administration Harold] Caccia, June 15 1954

Telegram from Secretary of State Dulles to the Delegation in Geneva, 17 June 1954

Telegram, [Premier and Minister of Foreign Affairs of the People’s Republic of China (PRC)] Zhou Enlai to [Chairman of the Central Committee of the Chinese Communist Party (CC CCP)] Mao Zedong and Others, Regarding the Situation at the Fifteenth Plenary Session, June 17 1954

Telegram from Secretary of State Dulles to the Delegation in Geneva, 18 June 1954

Telegram from the Delegation in Geneva to Secretary of State Dulles, 18 June 1954

Minutes, Meeting between [Premier and Minister of Foreign Affairs of the People’s Republic of China (PRC)] Zhou Enlai and the Australian Minister for External Affairs [Richard] Casey (Summary), June 18 1954

Telegram, [Premier and Minister of Foreign Affairs of the People’s Republic of China (PRC)] Zhou Enlai to [Chairman of the Central Committee of the Chinese Communist Party (CC CCP)] Mao Zedong and Others, Regarding Zhou’s Conversation with [French Minister of Foreign Affairs Georges] Bidault, June 18 1954

Telegram from Smith in Moscow to Secretary of State Dulles on Molotov's Views, 19 June 1954

Telegram, [Chinese Communist Party] CCP Central Committee to [Premier and Minister of Foreign Affairs of the People’s Republic of China (PRC)] Zhou Enlai, concerning the meeting at Nanning, 23:00, 20 June 1954, June 20 1954

Telegram, [Chinese Communist Party] CCP Central [Committee] to [Chief military advisor of the People’s Republic of China (PRC) to the Vietnamese Workers’ Party (VWP)] Wei Guoqing, [Member of the PRC Military Advisory Group to the VWP] Qiao Xiaoguang and Convoy to the Vietnamese Workers Party Central Committee, Regarding the meeting between the Premier and Comrade Ding [1], June 20 1954

Telegram, [Premier and Minister of Foreign Affairs of the People’s Republic of China (PRC)] Zhou Enlai to [Chairman of the Central Committee of the Chinese Communist Party (CC CCP)] Mao Zedong and Others, Regarding the Situation at the Sixteenth Restricted Session, June 21 1954

Minutes, [Premier and Minister of Foreign Affairs of the People’s Republic of China (PRC)] Zhou Enlai’s Meeting with [French Ambassador to Switzerland Jean] Chauvel, June 22 1954

Telegram, [Premier and Minister of Foreign Affairs of the People’s Republic of China (PRC)] Zhou Enlai to [Chairman of the Central Committee of the Chinese Communist Party (CC CCP)] Mao Zedong and Others, Regarding the Situation of the Meeting with [Laotian Interior and Foreign Minister Phoui] Sananikone
June 23 1954

Minutes, [Premier and Minister of Foreign Affairs of the People’s Republic of China (PRC)] Zhou Enlai’s Meeting with [French Prime Minister Pierre] Mendes-France, June 23 1954

Telegram, [Premier and Minister of Foreign Affairs of the People’s Republic of China (PRC)] Zhou Enlai to [Chairman of the Central Committee of the Chinese Communist Party (CC CCP)] Mao Zedong, [Vice Chairman of the CC CCP] Liu Shaoqi, and CCP Central Committee, “Arriving in Nanning on the 29th,” 3:00
June 23 1954

Minutes, [Premier and Minister of Foreign Affairs of the People’s Republic of China (PRC)] Zhou Enlai’s Meeting with [French Prime Minister Pierre] Mendes-France, June 23 1954

Telegram, [Chinese Communist Party] CCP Central Committee to [Premier and Minister of Foreign Affairs of the People’s Republic of China (PRC)] Zhou Enlai, 3:30 am, June 23 1954

Telegram from Ambassador Dillon in Paris to Secretary of State Dulles on French-Chinese Talks, 24 June 1954

Telegram from Secretary of State Dulles to American Delegation in Geneva, 24 June 1954

Telegram, [Director of the Department of American and Australian Affairs of the People’s Republic of China (PRC) Foreign Ministry] Li Kenong to PRC Foreign Ministry, “[Director of the Department of American and Australian Affairs of the PRC Foreign Ministry] Ke Bainian will fly back home from Geneva on the 25th”
June 24 1954

Telegram, [Vice Minister of Foreign Affairs of the People’s Republic of China (PRC)] Li Kenong to [People’s Liberation Army] PLA General Staff and PRC Foreign Ministry, Regarding the trip by [Ambassador of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam (DRV) to the PRC] Hoang Van Hoan and his six-person group
June 24 1954

Telegram, [Director of the Staff Office of the People’s Republic of China (PRC) Ministry of Foreign Affairs] Wang Bingnan to PRC Foreign Ministry Administrative Office, “Important telegrams from the delegation [in Geneva] to the Central Committee should be conveyed to Premier [and Minister of Foreign Affairs of the PRC] Zhou [Enlai] in Nanning” June 25 1954

Telegram, [People’s Republic of China] PRC Foreign Ministry to [Vice Minister of Foreign Affairs of the PRC] Li Kenong, Concerning [Ambassador of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam (DRV) to the PRC] Hoang Van Hoan’s arrival in Beijing, June 26 1954

Telegram, [Vice Minister of Foreign Affairs of the People’s Republic of China (PRC)] Li Kenong to [Chairman of the Central Committee of the Chinese Communist Party (CC CCP)] Mao Zedong, [Vice Chairman of the CC CCP] Liu Shaoqi, and the CCP Central Committee, and Convey to [Premier and Minister of Foreign Affairs of the PRC] Zhou Enlai, [Ambassador to the Soviet Union and Vice Minister of Foreign Affairs of the People’s Republic of China (PRC)] Zhang Wentian and [Vice Minister of Foreign Affairs of the PRC] Wang Jiaxiang, Concerning the content of a meeting between Soviet, Chinese, and Vietnamese delegations
June 26 1954

Telegram, [People’s Republic of China (PRC)] Foreign Ministry Administrative Office to [Vice Minister of Foreign Affairs of the PRC] Li Kenong, “Shan Daxin has arrived in Beijing,” 15:00 June 27 1954

Telegram, [People’s Republic of China (PRC)] Foreign Ministry to [Vice Minister of Foreign Affairs of the PRC] Li Kenong, “The Premier decides to stay one more day in Burma” June 27 1954

Telegram, [Director] Zhang Zhen [of the Department of Military Operations] to [military advisor to the Chinese delegation] Lei Yingfu, “The documents have been received” June 28 1954

Telegram from Secretary of State Dulles to American Delegation in Geneva, 28 June 1954

Telegram, [People’s Republic of China (PRC)] Foreign Ministry to [Premier and Minister of Foreign Affairs of the PRC] Zhou Enlai, “[Democratic Republic of Vietnam (DRV) Ambassador to the PRC] Hoang Van Hoan and his group have flown to Nanning’ June 29 1954

Telegram, [Vice Minister of Foreign Affairs of the People’s Republic of China (PRC)] Li Kenong to [Chairman of the Central Committee of the Chinese Communist Party (CC CCP)] Mao Zedong, [Vice Chairman of the CC CCP] Liu Shaoqi, and the Central Committee, “Briefing on the meeting by the Chinese, Soviet and Vietnamese delegations” June 29 1954

Telegram from Ambassador Dillon to Secretary of State Dulles on French Position, 30 June 1954

Telegram from Secretary of State Dulles on the Need to Inform Diem About Negotiations, 2 July 1954

Telegram, [People’s Republic of China] PRC Foreign Ministry to -- [Ambassador to the Soviet Union and Vice Minister of Foreign Affairs of the PRC] Zhang Wentian, [Vice Minister of Foreign Affairs of the PRC] Wang Jiaxiang, and [Vice Minister of Foreign Affairs of the PRC] Li Kenong, “The meeting between Premier [and Minister of Foreign Affairs of the People’s Republic of China (PRC)] Zhou [Enlai] and the leaders of the [Vietnamese Workers’ Party] VWP will be relocated to Liuzhou,” 10:30 July 02 1954

Telegram from Ambassador Dillon to Secretary of State Dulles on the French Position on the Negotiations, 2 July 1954

Telegram, [Vice Minister of Foreign Affairs of the People’s Republic of China (PRC)] Li Kenong to [Chairman of the Central Committee of the Chinese Communist Party (CC CCP)] Mao Zedong and Others, Regarding the Situation at the Twentieth Restricted Session, July 03 1954

Telegram, [Premier and Minister of Foreign Affairs of the People’s Republic of China (PRC)] Zhou Enlai to [Chairman of the Central Committee of the Chinese Communist Party (CC CCP)] Mao Zedong, [Vice Chairman of the CC CCP] Liu Shaoqi and the CCP Central Committee, “a brief report on the meetings at Liuzhou,” 13:00 July 03 1954

Telegram from Secretary of State Dulles to Ambassador Dillon on the French Position in the Negotiations, 4 July 1954

Telegram from Ambassador Dillon to Secretary of State Dulles on the French Position in the Negotiations, 4 July 1954

Telegram, [Premier and Minister of Foreign Affairs of the People’s Republic of China (PRC)] Zhou Enlai to [Chairman of the Central Committee of the Chinese Communist Party (CC CCP)] Mao Zedong, [Vice Chairman of the CC CCP] Liu Shaoqi and the CCP Central Committee, “a brief report on the meetings at Liuzhou,” 18:00 July 04 1954

Telegram from Ambassador Dillon to Secretary of State Dulles on the French Position in the Negotiations, 6 July 1954

Telegram, [People’s Republic of China] PRC Foreign Ministry to [Vice Minister of Foreign Affairs of the PRC] Li Kenong, [Ambassador to the Soviet Union and Vice Minister of Foreign Affairs of the PRC] Zhang Wentian and [Vice Minister of Foreign Affairs of the PRC] Wang Jiaxiang, “The Premier has returned to Beijing” July 06 1954

Telegram from Secretary of State Dulles to Ambassadors Dillon and Aldrich on the Negotiations in Geneva, 7 July 1954

Telegram from Secretary of State Dulles to Ambassador Dillon on the Negotiations in Geneva, 7 July 1954

Telegram, [Vice Minister of Foreign Affairs of the PRC] Li Kenong to Mao Zedong and Others, Regarding the Situation at the Twenty-first Restricted Session
July 07 1954

Telegram from Secretary of State Dulles to Ambassadors Dillon, Aldrich and Johnson on the Negotiations in Geneva, 8 July 1954

Telegram from Johnson to Secretary of State Dulles on the French Position in the Negotiations in Geneva, 9 July 1954

Telegram from Secretary of State Dulles with Text of a Letter to Mendes-France, 10 July 1954

Telegram, [Vice Minister of Foreign Affairs of the People’s Republic of China (PRC)] Li Kenong to [Chairman of the Central Committee of the Chinese Communist Party (CC CCP)] Mao Zedong and Others, Regarding the Situation at the Twenty-second Restricted Session, July 10 1954

Telegram from Ambassador Dillon to Secretary of State Dulles on French Reaction to Dulles' Letter to Mendes-France, 11 July 1954

Telegram from Ambassador Dillon to Secretary of State Dulles with Additional French Reaction to Dulles' Letter to Mendes-France, 11 July 1954

Increased Military Aid to Thailand: Statement Released by the Department of Defense, July 13, 1954

Minutes, [Premier and Minister of Foreign Affairs of the People’s Republic of China (PRC)] Zhou Enlai’s Meeting with [French Ambassador to Switzerland Jean] Chauvel, July 13 1954

Minutes, Conversation between [Premier and Minister of Foreign Affairs of the People’s Republic of China (PRC)] Zhou Enlai and [British Foreign Secretary] Anthony Eden, July 13 1954

Telegram from Ambassador Dillon to Secretary of State Dulles containing Texts of US-French-British Letters on Indochina, 14 July 1954

Consultations with the French Premier and the British Foreign Secretary: Statement by the Secretary of State, July 15, 1954

Secretary of State Dulles Report to the NSC on His Trip to Paris, 15 July 1954

Telegram from Walter Bedell Smith to Secretary of State Dulles on the Negotiations in Geneva, 17 July 1954

Minutes, [Premier and Minister of Foreign Affairs of the People’s Republic of China (PRC)] Zhou Enlai’s Conversation with [French Prime Minister Pierre] Mendes-France (Exerpt), July 17 1954

Minutes, [Premier and Minister of Foreign Affairs of the People’s Republic of China (PRC)] Zhou Enlai’s Meeting with [French Prime Minister Pierre] Mendes-France (Excerpt), July 17 1954

Telegram from Walter Bedell Smith to Secretary of State Dulles on a Vietnamese Note Concerning French Withdrawal, 17 July 1954

Telegram from Walter Bedell Smith to Secretary of State Dulles on the Chinese Position, 18 July 1954

Telegram from Secretary of State Dulles Questioning British Position in the Negotiations, 18 July 1954

Telegram from Walter Bedell Smith to Secretary of State Dulles on the Negotiations, 18 July 1954

Telegram from Walter Bedell Smith to Secretary of State Dulles on the Vietnamese Position, 18 July 1954

Minutes, Conversation between [Premier and Minister of Foreign Affairs of the People’s Republic of China (PRC)] Zhou Enlai and [Laotian Interior and Foreign Minister Phoui] Sananikone (Summary), July 18 1954

Minutes, Conversation between [Ambassador to the Soviet Union and Vice Minister of Foreign Affairs of the People’s Republic of China (PRC)] Zhang Wentian and [British Deputy Under Secretary for Foreign Affairs for Administration Harold] Caccia July 18 1954

Telegram from Walter Bedell Smith to Secretary of State Dulles on the Chinese Position, 19 July 1954

Telegram from Walter Bedell Smith to Secretary of State Dulles on the Control Commission, 19 July 1954

Telegram from Walter Bedell Smith to Secretary of State Dulles on the Conference Declaration, 19 July 1954

Telegram from Secretary of State Dulles on the Conference Declaration, 19 July 1954

Telegram from Walter Bedell Smith on the Vietnamese Position, 19 July 1954

Minutes, Conversation between [Ambassador to the Soviet Union and Vice Minister of Foreign Affairs of the People’s Republic of China (PRC)] Zhang Wentian and [British Deputy Under Secretary for Foreign Affairs for Administration] Harold Caccia, Second Meeting of 19 July, July 19 1954

Minutes, Conversation between [Ambassador to the Soviet Union and Vice Minister of Foreign Affairs of the People’s Republic of China (PRC)] Zhang Wentian and [British Deputy Under Secretary for Foreign Affairs for Administration Harold] Caccia, July 19 1954

Minutes, Conversation between [Premier and Minister of Foreign Affairs of the People’s Republic of China (PRC)] Zhou Enlai, [French Prime Minister] Pierre Mendes-France, and [British Foreign Secretary Anthony] Eden, July 19 1954

Telegram, [Premier and Minister of Foreign Affairs of the People’s Republic of China (PRC)] Zhou Enlai to [Chairman of the Central Committee of the Chinese Communist Party (CC CCP)] Mao Zedong and Others, Regarding Zhou’s Meetings with [French Prime Minister Pierre] Mendes-France and [British Foreign Secretary Anthony] Eden; and Discussions Outside the Conference, July 20 1954

Minutes, Conversation between [Premier and Minister of Foreign Affairs of the People’s Republic of China (PRC)] Zhou Enlai and Tep Phan (Summary), July 20 1954

Unilateral Declaration of the United States at the Concluding Session of the Geneva Conference, 21 July 1954

The American Response to the Geneva Declarations, July 21, 1954.

AGREEMENT ON THE CESSATION OF HOSTILITIES IN VIET-NAM, JULY 20, 1954 (The Geneva Accords)

The Final Declaration of The Geneva Conference: On Restoring Peace in Indochina, July 21, 1954

President Eisenhower's News Conference, July 21, 1954, Public Papers of the Presidents, 1954

Telegram, [Chinese Communist Party] CCP Central Committee to [Premier and Minister of Foreign Affairs of the People’s Republic of China (PRC)] Zhou Enlai, Concerning Policies and Measures in the Struggle against the United States and [Chiang Kai-shek] after the Geneva Conference, July 27 1954

Lansdale Team's Report on Covert Saigon Mission in 1954 and 1955

Eisenhower's Views on the Popularity of Ho Chi Minh

President Dwight D. Eisenhower on the likelihood that Ho Chi Minh would win a national election in Vietnam in 1955

Southeast Asia Collective Defense Treaty (Manila Pact); September 8, 1954

Protocol to the SEATO Treaty, September 8, 1954.

Direct Aid to the Associated States: Communique Regarding Franco-American Conversations, September 29, 1954, Department of State Bulletin, October 11, 1954

Aid to the State of Viet-Nam: Message from the President of the United States to the President of the Council of Ministers of Viet-Nam, October 23, 1954

MISSION OF THE SPECIAL UNITED STATES REPRESENTATIVE IN VIET-NAM: Statement Issued by the White House, November 3, 1954

Letter from President Eisenhower to Diem, 23 October 1954

1955

The Pentagon Papers, Gravel Edition, Volume 1, Chapter 5, "Origins of the Insurgency in South Vietnam, 1954-1960"

William M. Leary, "CIA Air Operations in Laos, 1955-1974," Studies in Intelligence, US, Central Intelligence Agency, Winter 1999-2000

Memorandum for the Record, April 27, 1955, SUMMARY OF REMARKS OF GENERAL LAWTON COLLINS on instability in South Vietnam

Memorandum of Discussion at the 246th Meeting of the National Security Council on civil instability in South Vietnam, Washington, April 28, 1955

Pierre Asselin. “Choosing Peace: Hanoi and the Geneva Agreement on Vietnam, 1954-1955.” Journal of ColdWar Studies 9.2 (Spring 2007): 95-126

Pierre Asselin. “Choosing Peace: Hanoi and the Geneva Agreement on Vietnam, 1954-1955.” Journal of Cold War Studies 9.2 (Spring 2007): 95-126, Reviewed by Jessica Chapman, University of California, Santa Barbara Published by H-Diplo on 13 July 2007

1956

Le Duan, "Duong Loi Cach Mang Mien Nam," [The Path of Revolution in the South], circa 1956.

Address by President Eisenhower before the American Society of Newspaper Editors, April 21, 1956

UNITED STATES POLICY WITH RESPECT TO VIETNAM: Address by the Assistant Secretary of State for Far Eastern Affairs, Walter S. Robertson, Washington, June 1, 1956. Delivered to the American Friends of Vietnam at the Willard Hotel in Washington, DC.

1957

President Eisenhower, Special Message to the Congress on the Mutual Security Programs, May 21, 1957

Radio and Television Address to the American People on the Need for Mutual Security in Waging the Peace, May 21, 1957

1958

President Eisenhower, Radio and Television Report to the American People Regarding the Situation in the Formosa Straits, September 11, 1958

President Eisenhower's News Conference of October 1, 1958

1959

President Eisenhower, Special Message to the Congress on the Mutual Security Program, March 13, 1959

THE IMPORTANCE TO THE UNITED STATES OF THE SECURITY AND PROGRESS OF VIET-NAM: Address by President Eisenhower, Gettysburg College, Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, April 4, 1959 (Excerpt)

1960

Harold P. Ford, "Why CIA Analysts Were So Doubtful About Vietnam," Studies in Intelligence, US, Central Intelligence Agency, 1999

Denise Bostdorff and Steven Goldzwig, "Idealism and pragmatism in American foreign policy rhetoric: The case of John F. Kennedy and Vietnam," Presidential Studies Quarterly; Volume: 24 Issue: 3, Summer 1994

President Eisenhower, Special Message to the Congress on the Mutual Security Program, February 16, 1960

Statement by Senator John Kennedy on the Need to Have Limited War Options, 29 February 1960

Manifesto of the Eighteen, Saigon, April 1960

Senator John F. Kennedy's Statement on Limited War in Congressional Record, June 14, 1960

Cablegram from Elbridge Durbrow, United States Ambassador in Saigon, to Secretary of State Christian A. Herter on Threats to Saigon Regime, Sept. 16, 1960.

Senator John F. Kennedy's Statement on the Dangerous Role of the People's Republic of China, Washington Daily News, September 22, 1960:

Interview Between John F. Kennedy and Walter Cronkite on Foreign Policy Challenges to the U.S., 22 October 1960

Message from President Eisenhower to Ngo Dinh Diem, President of the Republic of Viet-Nam, October 22, 1960

Ken Conboy and James Morrison,  "Operation Typhoon: Early Covert Action on the Ho Chi Minh Trail," Vietnam Magazine

1961

Vietnam Studies, U.S. Army Special Forces, 1961-1971, CMH Publication 90-23 Department of the Army Washington, D.C. 1989 (First Printed, 1973)

Robert J. Hanyok, Spartans in Darkness: American SIGINT and the Indochina War, 1945-1975, Center for Cryptologic History, National Security Agency
2002, Chapter 4 - The Burden's First Fanfare: American SIGINT Arrives in the Republic of Vietnam, 1961-1964

Visit of General Edward G. Lansdale to Vietnam, January 2-14, 1961, "BASIC COUNTERINSURGENCY PLAN FOR VIET-NAM," 4 January 1961

Memorandum of Conference on January 19, 1961 between President Eisenhower and President-Elect Kennedy on the Subject of Laos

Merle L. Pribbenow, "North Vietnam's Master Plan," Vietnam, VOL. 12, No. 2 (AUGUST 1999)

The Pentagon Papers, Gravel Edition, Volume 2, Chapter 1, "The Kennedy Commitments and Programs, 1961"

Letter From the Secretary of Defense's Deputy Assistant for Special Operations (Lansdale) to President Diem, 30 January 1961

Statement by President Kennedy on the Importance of Laos at a News Conference, 23 March 1961

President Kennedy's Special Message to Congress on the Defense Budget, Excerpt on Limited Wars, March 28, 1961

President Kennedy's Address to American Society of Newspaper Editors, April 20, 1961

President Kennedy's Address, in Chicago to Democratic Party Dinner, April 28, 1961

President Kennedy's Presidential News Conference, Question on the Issue of Sending in American Troops to South Vietnam, May 5, 1961

Excerpts from "A Program of Action for South Vietnam," Drafted by an interdepartmental task force comprising representatives from the Departments of State and Defense, the Central Intelligence Agency, the International Cooperation Administration, the United States Information Agency and the Office of the President.8 May 1961

National Security Action Memorandum 52, signed by McGeorge Bundy, Presidential adviser on national security, 11 May 1961.

Joint Communique Issued at Saigon by the Vice President of the United States and the President of Viet-Nam, May 13, 1961

President Kennedy's Special Message to Congress, May 25, 1961

Excerpts from memorandum from Brig. Gen. Edward G. Lansdale, Pentagon expert on guerrilla warfare, to Gen. Maxwell D. Taylor, President Kennedy's military adviser, on "Resources for Unconventional Warfare, SE. Asia," undated but apparently from July, 1961

U.S., Congress, Senate, Committee on Foreign Relations, The U.S. Government and the Vietnam War: Executive and Legislative Roles and Relationships, Part II, 1961-1964 (Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1985 CHAPTER 1, THE 1961 DECISION TO STAND FIRM IN VIETNAM

The Pentagon Papers, Gravel Edition, Volume 2, Chapter 2, "The Strategic Hamlet Program, 1961-1963"

The Pentagon Papers, Gravel edition, Volume 2, Chapter 6 of the Pentagon Papers, "The Advisory Build-Up, 1961-67," pp. 408-514

President Kennedy's Address to the United Nations, September 25, 1961

Cablegram from the United States Embassy in Saigon to the State Department on Diem's Request for a Bilateral Defense Treaty, 1 Oct. 1961

President Kennedy's News Conference, Response to a Question Regarding the Sending of American Troops to South Vietnam, October 11, 1961

Memorandum for General Taylor from L.L. Lemnitzer, Chairman, Joint Chiefs of Staff, "Coutnerinsurgency Operations in South Vietnam, 12 October 1961

Cablegram from United States Embassy in Saigon to the State Department 13 Oct. 1961, on requests by Nguyen Dinh Thuan, Defense Minister of South Vietnam.

Excerpts from General Taylor's report, 3 Nov. 1961, on his mission to South Vietnam for President Kennedy.

DRAFT MEMO FROM THE SEC'Y OF DEFENSE (MCNAMARA) TO THE PRES WASHINGTON, 11-5-61 TOP SECRET

SEC'Y MCNAMARA'S MEMO FOR THE PRES ON THE SUBJECT OF RVN MEMO FROM LIEUTENANT COMMANDER WORTH S BAGLEY TO THE PRES'S MILITARY REP (TAYLOR) WASHINGTON, 11-7-61 TOP SECRET

Memo from the Sec'y of Defense (McNamara) to the JCS Chairman (Lemnitzer) Washington, 11-13-61

MEMO FROM THE SECDEF (MCNAMARA) TO THE JCS CHAIRMAN (LEMNITZER) WASHINGTON, 11-13-61 TOP SECRET

Memorandum From the President [Kennedy] to the Secretary of State [Rusk] and the Secretary of Defense [McNamara], 14 November 1961

Memo from the Joint Chiefs of Staff to the Sec'y of Defense (McNamara) Washington, 11-22-61, Top Secret

Telegram from the SecDef (McNamara) to the Commander in Chief Pacific (Felt) and the Chief MAAG Vietnam (McGarr) Washington, 11-28-61, TOP SECRET; Priority

Kennedy's Letter to Ngo Dinh Diem, 14 December 1961

President Kennedy Letter to President Diem, December 14, 1961

Memo From the Spec Asst to the JCS Chairman (Maj General TW Parker) to the Chairman (Lemnitzer), Washington, 12-18-61 SECRET

Memo From the SecDef (McNamara) to the SecState (Rusk) Washington, 12-18-61, SECRET

Telegram From the Commander of the Military Assistance Advisory Group in Vietnam (McGarr) to the Chairman of the JCS (Lemnitzer) Saigon, 12-20-61, SECRET; Eyes Only

Memo From the SecDef (McNamara) to the Pres (Kennedy) Washington, 12-22-61, SECRET. At the bottom of the source text the Pres signed his name under the place designated) "Approved."

Memo From the Pres's Special Asst for National Security Affairs (Bundy) to the President at  Palm Beach, 12-27-61, SECRET

1962

The Pentagon Papers, Gravel Edition, Volume 2, Chapter 3, "Phased Withdrawal of U.S. Forces, 1962-1964," pp. 160-200.

Robert J. Hanyok, Spartans in Darkness: American SIGINT and the Indochina War, 1945-1975, Center for Cryptologic History, National Security Agency
2002, Chapter 2 - The Struggle for Heaven's Mandate: SIGINT and the Internal Crisis in South Vietnam, [Deleted] 1962

Talking Paper for the Chairman, JCS, for meeting with the President of the United States on Current US Military Actions in South Vietnam, 9 January 1962

Excerpt on South Vietnam and Laos from President Kennedy's State of the Union Message, January 11, 1962

President Kennedy's News Conference, Question on a Coalition Government in Laos, January 15, 1962

Memorandum for General Lansdale on the Vietnamese Command Problem, L.L. Lemnitzer, Chairman, Joint Chiefs of Staff, 18 January 1962

National Security Memorandum 124, "Establishment of the Special Group (Counter-Insurgency)," 18 January 1962

Letter from Deputy Under Secretary for Political Affairs, U. Alexis Johnson, to Deputy Secretary of Defense, Roswell Gilpatric, on increasing the Size of the ARVN, 26 January 1962

JCS Memorandum on the "Strategic Importance of the Southeast Mainland," 27 January 1962

Response to a Question on American Involvement in South Vietnam, President Kennedy's News Conference, February 7, 1962

Response to a Question on American Involvement in South Vietnam, President Kennedy's News Conference, February 14, 1962

National Security Action Memorandum No. 132, "Support of Local Police Forces for Internal Security and Counter-Insurgency Purposes," 19 February 1962

National Security Action Memorandum No. 131, "Training Objective for Counter-Insurgency," 13 March 1962

President Kennedy's Speech at University of California, March 23, 1962

Memorandum to President Kennedy from Ambassador John Kenneth Galbraith on Vietnam, 4 April 1962

President Kennedy's News Conference, April 11, 1962

Memorandum to Secretary of Defense McNamara from L.L. Lemnitzer, Chairman, Joint Chiefs of Staff, on Ambassador Galbraith's memorandum, 13 April 1962

President Kennedy's News Conference, Question on the Cease-Fire in Laos, May 9, 1962

White House Statement of the President on the Dispatch of American Troops to Thailand, May 15, 1962

President Kennedy's News Conference, May 17, 1962

NATIONAL SECURITY ACTION MEMORANDUM NO. 157, "Presidential Meeting on Laos, May 24, 1962," 29 May 1962

Excerpts from President Kennedy's Address at Graduation Exercises of the U.S. Military Academy, June 6, 1962

President Kennedy's News Conference, Response to a Question About Criticisms by Senator Mansfield on US Southeast Asian Policy, June 14, 1962

Roger Hilsman, Department of State, Bureau of Intelligence and Research, Research Memorandum, RFE-27, June 18, 1962, "Progress Report on South Vietnam"

NATIONAL SECURITY ACTION MEMORANDUM NO. 162, "Development of US and Indigenous Police, Paramilitary and Military Resources," 19 June 1962

U.S. Comments on Report of Control Commission for Viet-Nam, 16 July 1962

Memorandum from the Director of the CIA to Secretary of Defense McNamara on the Strategic Hamlet Program, 13 July 1962

NATIONAL SECURITY ACTION MEMORANDUM NO. 182, "Counterinsurgency Doctrine," 24 August 1962

Port Huron Statement by Tom Hayden (1962)

Harold P. Ford, CIA and the Vietnam Policymakers: Three Episodes, 1962-1968, Center for the Study of Intelligence

Roger Hilsman, "The Situation and Short-Term Prospects in South Vietnam," DEPARTMENT OF STATE, Bureau of Intelligence and Research, Research Memorandum, RFE-59, December 3, 1962

1963

Excerpts from President Kennedy's Annual Message to the Congress on the State of the Union, January 14, 1963

Michael V. Forrestal, Memorandum for the President, "A Report on South Vietnam," February 1963

Excerpts from President Kennedy's News Conference, March 6, 1963

Memorandum of a Conversation, President Kennedy and R.G.K. Thompson, White House, Washington, April 4,1963,10 a.m

U. Alexis Johnson's Address Made Before the Economic Club of Detroit, "The United States and Southeast Asia," April 8, 1963

Summary Record of the 511th National Security Council Meeting Washington, April 10, 1963

US, Central Intelligence Agency, National Intelligence Estimate 53-63, "Prospects in South Vietnam," 17 April 1963

Michael V. Forrestal memorandum for the record on April 19, 1963 White House meeting on Laos

Memorandum From the Directorate of Plans (Colby) to Director of Central Intelligence McCone, Washington, Presidential Meeting on Laos, 19 April 1963

The Pentagon Papers, Gravel Edition, Volume 2, Chapter 4, "The Overthrow of Ngo Dinh Diem, May-November, 1963," pp. 201-276.

Secretary Rusk's Address, "The Stake in Viet-Nam," Before the Economic Club of New York, at New York, April 22, 1963

President Kennedy's View of the "Domino Theory," News Conference, April 24, 1963

President Kennedy's Explanation for the Differences in US Policy Toward Laos and Vietnam, News Conference, 8 May 1963

Memorandum From the Commander in Chief, Pacific (Felt) to the Joint Chiefs of Staff, CINCPAC, Honolulu, May 11, 1963. Revised Plan for Republic of Vietnam

FREDRIK LOGEVALL, Choosing War: The Lost Chance for Peace and the Escalation of War in Vietnam, Chapter 1, University of California Press (August 1963)

Assistant Secretary for Far Eastern Affairs, Roger W. Hilsman, Address Made at 1963 Conference on Cold War Education, Tampa, Florida, June 14, 1963, "The Challenge to Freedom in Asia"

Carl Kaysen, NATIONAL SECURITY ACTION MEMORANDUM NO. 249, "Laos Planning," 25 June 1963

The Pentagon Papers, Gravel Edition, Volume 2, Chapter 4, "The Overthrow of Ngo Dinh Diem, May-November, 1963," pp. 201-276.

US, Congress, Senate, The Senate Select Committee to Study Governmental Operations with Respect to Intelligence Activities (The "Church Committee"), "Assassination Planning and The Plots: Diem." 1975

Department of State, Memorandum of Conversation, "Situation in South Viet-Nam," 4 July 1963

Memorandum of Conversation on the Current Situation in South Viet-Nam, 5 July 1963

US, Central Intelligence Agency, Director of Central Intelligence John A. McCone, Briefing Notes on Coup Possibilities in Vietnam, 9 July 1963

SNIE 53-2-63, "The Situation in South Vietnam, 10 July 1963

President Kennedy's Views of the Split Between the Buddhists and the South Vietnamese Government, News Conference, July 17, 1963

US, Department of State, Cable to Ambassador Lodge on Diem's Policies, 24 August 1963

US, Cable from Assistant Secretary of State for Far Eastern Affairs Roger A. Hilsman on coup possibilities in Vietnam, 24 August 1963

Cablegram from Ambassador Lodge to Secretary of State Dean Rusk and Assistant Secretary of State Roger Hilsman on Diem's Future, Aug. 25, 1963.

Deputy Director of Viet-Nam Working Group, Theodore J.C. Heavner, Address Made Before National Sec & Leg Committee at the National Convention of Veterans of Foreign Wars, in Seattle, Washington, August 25, 1963, "The Viet-Nam Situation"

Cablegram from John Richardson, the Central Intelligence Agency's Saigon station chief, to John A. McCone, Director of Central Intelligence, on Contact with Saigon Generals, Aug. 26, 1963

Memorandum of Conversation among President Kennedy and his advisors, "Vietnam," August 26, 1963

US, National Security Council Staffer Michael V. Forrestal, Memorandum for the President, August 27, 1963

US, Memorandum of Conversation among President Kennedy and his advisors, "Vietnam," August 27, 1963

Memorandum of Conference with the President, August 27, 1963

Cablegram from John Richardson, the Central Intelligence Agency's Saigon station chief, to John A. McCone, Director of Central Intelligence, on Coup Prospects in Saigon, Aug. 28, 1963

Memorandum of Conversation, "Vietnam," August 28, 1963

Central Intelligence Agency, Current Intelligence Memorandum (OCI 2703/63), "Cast of Characters in South Vietnam," August 28, 1963

Memorandum of Conversation, "Vietnam," August 28, 1963

Cable from US Department of State to Ambassador Lodge Supporting a Coup in South Vietnam, 29 August 1963

Cable from US Department of State to Ambassador Lodge on Discussions with Diem, 29 August 1963

Lodge Cable to Secretary Rusk on Diem's Closeness to Brother, 29 August 1963

Lodge Cable to Secretary Rusk on U.S. Policy Toward a Coup, 29 August 1963

Memorandum of Conference with the President, August 29, 1963

Memorandum of Conversation, "Vietnam," August 29, 1963

State-Saigon Cable 272, August 29, 1963 with instructions from President Kennedy on how to deal with Diem

OFFICE OF THE SPECIAL ASSISTANT FOR COUNTERINSURGENCY AND SPECIAL ACTIVITIES, MEMORANDUM FOR THE RECORD, Meeting at the State Department, 1100, 31 August 1963; Subject: Vietnam, 31 August 1963

Cable by U.S. General Harkins in Saigon to General Maxwell Taylor on End of August Plot, 31 August 1963

Instructions for Ambassador Lodge on Dealing With Diem Regime Repression, 31 August 1963

Telegram from Secretary of State Dean Rusk to Ambassador Lodge, 31 August 1963

President Kennedy's Television Interviews on Vietnam, September 2 and 9, 1963

President Kennedy's NBC Interview, September 9, 1963

National Security Council Staff-State Department Draft, Michael Forrestal and Roger Hilsman, "Suggested Draft of Presidential Letter Adapted to Phase I of the Plan," September 12, 1963

State Department-National Security Council Staff Draft, Roger Hilsman-Michael Forrestal, Potential Kennedy-Diem Letter, September 12, 1963

President Kennedy's News Conference, September 12, 1963

Cable from the White House to Ambassador Lodge on Proposed Changes in Policy Toward South Vietnam, 17 September 1963

Cable from the President to Ambassador Lodge on Proposed McNamara Mission to South Vietnam, 18 September 1963

Cable from Ambassador Lodge to the President on the Situation in South Vietnam, 19 September 1963

Memorandum from President Kennedy to Secretary of Defense McNamara on the Purposes of McNamara's Visit to South Vietnam, 21 September 1963

Cable from George Ball to Ambassador Lodge on Situation in South Vietnam 22 September 1963

President Kennedy's TV Interview with Walter Cronkite, September 25, 1963

President Kennedy's Remarks at the Yellowstone County Fairgrounds, Billings, Montana, September 25, 1963

President Kennedy's Remarks at the High School Memorial Stadium, Great Falls, Montana, September 26, 1963

Memorandum of Conversation (Diem, Thuan, Lodge, McNamara, Parkins, Flott), 29 September 1963

National Security Council meeing of October 2, 1963, discusses problems with the Diem government in Vietnam.

Central Intelligence Agency, Untitled Draft of a Briefing Paper for President Kennedy on the Role of the CIA in Vietnam, October 8, 1963

Memorandum for the President, "Report of McNamara-Taylor Mission to South Vietnam," 2 October 1963

U.S. POLICY ON VIET-NAM: WHITE HOUSE STATEMENT, OCTOBER 2, 1963

U.S. Policy on Viet-Nam: White House Statement, October 2, 1963

Cable to Ambassador Lodge Outlining US Policy Toward a Possible Coup, 5 October 1963

Cable from Ambassador Lodge Describing a Meeting between Lt. Col. Conein and General Duong Van Minh in which a Coup Against Diem was Discussed, 5 October 1963

Cable from the Central Intelligence Agency to Ambassador Lodge on Strategies Regarding a Possible Coup, 6 October 1963

NATIONAL SECURITY ACTION MEMORANDUM NO. 263, October 11, 1963 (in which reference is made to a possible withdrawal of 1000 American troops)

James K. Galbraith, "Exit Strategy: In 1963, JFK ordered a complete withdrawal from Vietnam," Boston Review, October/November, 2003

Post on H-Diplo from Doug Macdonald, Colgate University, on the question of whether President Kennedy was considering withdrawal from Vietnam, 29 December 2003

Continuing Discussion on H-Diplo on the Question of Whether JFK Planned to Pull Out of Vietnam, Comment by Doug Macdonald, Colgate University, Posted 15 January 2004

Thomas L. Hughes, Department of State, Bureau of Intelligence and Research, Research Memorandum, RFE-90, "Statistics on the War Effort in South Vietnam Show Unfavorable Trends," 22 October 1963

Cable from Ambassador Lodge to McGeorge Bundy on US Options With Respect to a Possible Coup, 25 October 1963

Cable from McGeorge Bundy to Ambassador Lodge on US Options With Respect to a Possible Coup, 25 October 1963

Department of State, Joseph A. Mendenhall, of the Far East Bureau of the State Department, "Successor Heads of Government," October 25, 1963

Department of State, "Check-List of Possible U.S. Actions in Case of Coup," October 25, 1963

National Security Council Staff, "Check List for 4 PM Meeting," Topic was Coup Contingency Planning, no date [October 29, 1963]

Memorandum of Conference with the President, October 29, 1963

National Security Council, Draft Cable, Eyes Only for Ambassador Saigon, October 29, 1963

Cable from McGeorge Bundy to Ambassador Lodge on US Options With Respect to a Possible Coup, 30 October 1963

Cable from General Harkins to Maxwell Taylor Urging Support for Diem, 30 October 1963

Cable from General Harkins to Maxwell Taylor Suggesting that His Views Were not Accurately Represented by Ambassador Lodge, 30 October 1963

Cable from Ambassador Lodge to the State Department on Issues Surrounding a Possible Coup, 30 October 1963

Cable from McGeorge Bundy to Ambassador Lodge on Issues Surrounding a Possible Coup, 30 October 1963

McGeorge Bundy, Draft Cable, Eyes Only for Ambassador Lodge [CIA cable 79407, noted in upper right hand corner], Yopic on US Role in Prevnting a Coup in Vietnam, October 30, 1963

Phone Conversation Between Ngo Dinh Diem and Henry Cabot Lodge, November 1,1963

Memorandum of Conference with the President, November 1, 1963

Department of State, John M. Dunn, Memorandum for the Record, November 1, 1963

Central Intelligence Agency, "The Situation in South Vietnam," November 2, 1963

National Security Council, Memorandum of Conference with the President, November 2, 1963

Embassy Saigon, Cable 888, on death of Diem, November 2, 1963

Memorandum of Conference with the President, November 2, 1963

John Prados, "JFK and the Diem Coup," National Security Archives, 5 November 2003

John F. Kennedy Library, JFK dictates some notes concerning the anti-Diem coup in South Vietnam, November 4, 1963. (2:04 minutes)

Nov. 6, 1963 cable from President Kennedy to Ambassador Lodge in Saigon, discusses U.S. policy in light of recent coup.

CIA, "Press Version of How Diem and Nhu Died" (OCI 3213/63), November 12, 1963

Nov. 13, 1963 cable outlines plans for Honolulu Conference on the Vietnam situation

Memo from Dean Rusk rejecting the notion of a negotiated Vietnam settlement, Nov. 13, 1963

Kennedy's Last Press Conference — November 14, 1963

Excerpts from briefing book prepared for the November 1963 Honolulu Conference on Vietnam, 20 November 1962

Associated Press Report on the Honolulu Conference, 22 November 1963

President Kennedy's Remarks Prepared for Delivery at the Trade Mart in Dallas, November 22, 1963

The Pentagon Papers, Gravel Edition, Volume 3, Chapter 1, "U.S. Programs in South Vietnam, Nov. 1963-Apr. 1965," pp. 1-105.

Secretary of Defense, Robert McNamara, Memorandum for the President, "Vietnam Situation," 21 December 1963

1964

The Pentagon Papers, Gravel Edition, Volume 2, Chapter 5, "US-GVN Relations, 1964-1967," pp. 277-407.

The Pentagon Papers, Gravel Edition, Volume 3, Chapter 2, "Military Pressures Against North Vietnam, February 1964-January 1965," pp. 106-268.

Robert J. Hanyok, Spartans in Darkness: American SIGINT and the Indochina War, 1945-1975, Center for Cryptologic History, National Security Agency
2002, Chapter 6 - Xerxes' Arrows: SIGINT Support to the Air War, 1964-1972

Beijing and the Vietnam Conflict, 1964-1965: New Chinese Evidence, article and translations by Qiang Zhai

Cold War International History Project, Working Paper #22: 77 CONVERSATIONS BETWEEN CHINESE AND FOREIGN LEADERS ON THE WARS IN INDOCHINA, 1964-1977

The Vietnam War and Soviet-American Relations, 1964-73: New Russian Evidence, by Ilya V. Gaiduk

Memorandum for the Secretary of Defense, Robert McNamara, from Maxwell Taylor, Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, "Vietnam and Southeast Asia," 22 January 1964

NATIONAL SECURITY ACTION MEMORANDA, NSAM 280: South Vietnam, 14 February 1964

Secretary Rusk Interviewed on Voice of America, 15 February 1964, Department of State Bulletin, 2 March 1964, p. 333

TV Interview with President Johnson in which Johnson Endorses the "Domino Theory," 15 March 1964

Memorandum for the President by Robert McNamara, "South Vietnam," 16 March 1964

NATIONAL SECURITY ACTION MEMORANDA, NSAM 288: Implementation of South Vietnam Programs, 17 March 1964

Memorandum, JCS 5390 (M/Gen F. T. Unger), "Planning Actions in Vietnam," 18 March 1964

Summary of JCSM-426-64, "North Vietnam Operations," 19 May 1964

Telegram from President Kennedy to Ambassador Lodge, State 1484, 20 March 1964

Was Kennedy Planning to Pull Out of Vietnam? Oral History Interview with Bobby Kennedy, April 1964

"United States Policy in Vietnam," by Robert S. McNamara, Secretary of Defense, 26 March 1964, Department of State Bulletin, 13 April 1964

"Laos and Viet-Nam--A Prescription for Peace," Address by Secretary Rusk before the American Law Institute, Washington, D.C., 22 May 1964, Department of State Bulletin, 8 June 1964

Telephone Conversation Between President Johnson and Senator Richard Russell, Washington, May 27, 1964, 10:55 p.m.

CIA Special National Intelligence Estimate on possible North Vietnamese responses to U.S. actions, May 1964

Telephone Conversation Between President Johnson and the President's Special Assistant for National Security Affairs (Bundy) Washington, May 27, 1964, 11:24 a.m.

"U.S. Calls for Frontier Patrol to He!p Prevent Border Incidents Between Cambodia and Vietnam." Statement by Adlai Stevenson to Security Council, 21 May 1964, Department of State Bulletin, 8 June 1964

"The Defense of the Free World," Robert S. McNamara, Secretary of Defense, before the National Industrial Conference Board, 21 May 1964, Department of State Bulletin, 8 June 1964

"President Outlines Basic Themes of U.S. Policy in Southeast Asia," Statement by President Johnson at his News Conference on June 2, 1964, Department of State Bulletin, 22 June 1964

NATIONAL SECURITY ACTION MEMORANDA, NSAM 308: Designation of Robert J. Manning to Disseminate Facts on Southeast Asia, 22 June 1964

NATIONAL SECURITY ACTION MEMORANDA, NSAM 310: Designation of Michael Forrestal As Chairman of Committee For Management of US Policy and Operations in South Vietnam, 8 July 1964

Telegram from Saigon Embassy to the State Department on "Marching North." 25 July 1964

Telegram from the State Department to the Embassy in Laos Regarding Proposed Bombing in Laos, 26 July 1964

Telegram (Vientiane 170) from the Embassy in Laos to the State Department Regarding Proposed Bombing in Laos (Deptel 89) , 27 July 1964

NATIONAL SECURITY ACTION MEMORANDA, NSAM 313: Re SEA stories (ref: NSAM 308), 31 July 1964

NATIONAL SECURITY ACTION MEMORANDA, NSAM 325: Informational and Psychological Warfare Programs in South Vietnam, no date

US, Department of State, Foreign Relations of the United States, 1964-1968, Volume I, Vietnam, 1964, Part VIII. U.S. Reaction To Events in the Gulf of Tonkin, August 1-10

NSA SIGINT Command Center Record of Events, Gulf of Tonkin Incident, 1 August - 14 August 1964

Robert J. Hanyok, Spartans in Darkness: American SIGINT and the Indochina War, 1945-1975, Center for Cryptologic History, National Security Agency
2002, Chapter 5 - Skunks, Bogies, Silent Hounds, and the Flying Fish: The Gulf of Tonkin Mystery, 2-4 August 1964

State Department - Foreign Relations of the United States (FRUS): "U.S. Reaction To Events in the Gulf of Tonkin, August 1-10"

Excerpt from "Address to the Nation by President Johnson," 4 August 1964, Department of State Bulletin, 24 August 1964, p. 259

Excerpt From "Address by the President, Syracuse University, 5 August 1964," Department of State Bulletin, 24 August 1964

Memorandum for the Record of White House Staff Meeting on the Gulf of Tonkin Incident, Washington, August 5, 1964, 8 a.m.

President Johnson's Address to the Congress, Tonkin Gulf Incident, August 5, 1964

The Gulf of Tonkin Incident, 40 Years Later: Flawed Intelligence and the Decision for War in Vietnam, Signals Intercepts, Cited at Time, Prove Only August 2nd Battle, Not August 4; Purported Second Attack Prompted Congressional Blank Check for War, Johnson-McNamara Tapes Show Readiness to Escalate, Even on Suspect Intel; Top Aides Knew of Mistaken Signals, but Welcomed Justification for Vote. National Security Archive Electronic Briefing Book No. 132, Edited by John Prados, Posted August 4, 2004

Naitonal Security Archive, Essay: 40th Anniversary of the Gulf of Tonkin Incident by John Prados, Posted August 4, 2004

Gulf of Tonkin Signals Intercepts

President Lyndon B. Johnson Tapes on Gulf of Tonkin

National Public Radio, "Cronkite: Gulf of Tonkin's Phantom Attack Faulty Intelligence Played Role in Decision to Engage Viet Cong, 2 August 2004

Robert J. Hanyok, "Skunks, Bogies, Silent Hounds, and the Flying Fish: The Gulf of Tonkin Mystery, 2-4 August 1964," Cryptologic Quarterly, February 1998

US, National Security Agency, Central Security Service, "Gulf of Tonkin - 11/30/2005 and 05/30/2006," Classified Documents on the Gulf of Tonkin Incident, Declassified on 30 November 2005.

Excerpt From "President's Message to Congress, 5 August 1964," Department of State Bulletin, 24 August 1964

"Secretary Rusk Discusses Asian Situation on NBC Program," 5 August 1964, Department of State Bulletin, 24 August 1964

SECURITY COUNCIL HEARS U.S. CHARGE OF NORTH VIETNAMESE ATTACKS: Statement by Adlai E. Stevenson, U.S. Representative in the Security Council, August 5, 1964

Jeff Cohen and Norman Solomon, "30-Year Anniversary: Tonkin Gulf Lie Launched Vietnam War," Media Beat, July 27, 1994

Captain Ronnie E. Ford, U.S. Army, "New Light on Gulf of Tonkin," Vietnam Magazine

Peter Grier, "Declassified study puts Vietnam events in new light: US signals intelligence during the war came up short in major turning points, according to an NSA history," Christian Science Monitor, 9 January 2008

Elisabeth Bumiller, "Records Show Doubts on ’64 Vietnam Crisis," New York Times, 14 July 2010

Rules of Engagement After the Gulf of Tonkin Incident, 5 August 1964

Text of Joint Resolution (The Tonkin Gulf Resolution), August 7, Department of State Bulletin, 24 August 1964

Telegram from Secretary of State Rusk (State 136) to the Embassy in Laos on Proposed Bombing in Laos, 7 August 1964

Draft Telegram from McNaughton to the Embassy in Ottawa on US Policy in Vietnam After the Gulf of Tonkin Incident, 7 August 1964

Telegram to the Embassy in Ottawa on US Policy in Vietnam After the Gulf of Tonkin Incident, 8 August 1964

Department of Defense Intelligence Information Report, Interrogation Report, Gulf of Tonkin Incident, 25 March 1968

Telegram from Maxwell Taylor (CINCPAC 176) to the Department of State Regarding Instructions in Deptel 378, 9 August 1964

Telegram from Secretary of State Rusk Approving Limited Air and Ground Operations in Laos, 9 August 1964

Col Ralph Steakley, USAF; Chronology of Events Relating to DESOTO Patrol Incidents in the Gulf of Tonkin on 2 and 4 August 1964; 10 August 1964

W.P. Bundy, Second Draft of "Next Courses of Action in Southeast Asia," 11 August 1964

Letter from McNaughton to W.P. Bundy Requesting Clarifications and Changes in the Rules of Engagement, 11 August 1964

Ambassador Taylor's Situation Report on the Republic of Vietnam, 10 August 1964

Memorandum From the President's Special Assistant for National Security Affairs (Bundy) to the President, Third Draft, "Next Courses of Action in Southeast Asia," Washington, August 13, 1964.

CAPT J.J. Herrick, USN, "Chronological Sequence of Events USS Maddox aand USS Turner Joy Action of 4 August 1964 in the Gulf of Tonkin,"14 August 1964

Lawrence Levinson, Chronology of Events - Tuesday, August 4 and Wednesday, August 5 1964 Tonkin Gulf Strike; 28 August 1964

Lt Col Delmar C. Lang, USAF, "Chronology of Events of 2-5 August 1964 in the Gulf of Tonkin," 14 October 1964

Marshall Wright & Sven Kraemer, Vietnam Information Group; Presidential Decisions -The Gulf of Tonkin Attacks of August 1964; 1 Nov 1968

Joseph F. Carroll, Memorandum for the SecDef from Director, DIA, "Release of COMINT Pertaining to Gulf of Tonkin Incidents, 2 and 4 August 1964, 13 December 1967

Cable from State to Saigon, Vientiane, CINCPAC, giving Key Points to a Tentative High Level Paper on Next Courses of Action in Southeast Asia, 14 August 1964

Cable from the Joint Chiefs of Staff Revising the Rules of Engagement (JCS 7947), 15 August 1964

Cable from COMUSMACV to CINCPAC on Cross Border Operations, 16 August 1964

Cable from US Embassy in Laos to the State Department on Proposal to Initiate Bombing in Laos, 17 August 1964

Cable from CINCPAC to the Joint Chiefs of Staff on Proposal for "Next Courses of Action in Southeast Asia," 17 August 1964

Extract: Memo for Secretary of Defense from Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff "Combat Air Capability in North Vietnam" 17 AUG 64 (JCSM-707-64)

Cable from The US Embassy in South Vietnam to the State Department Suggesting a New Paper on Possible Courses of Action in Southeast Asia, (State 465) 18 August 1964

Memorandum for the Secretary of Defense from the Assistant Defense Secretary (Comptroller), Charles J. Hitch, Suggesting that the Use of Air Power Might Not Be Decisive in Southeast Asia, 24 August 1964

Memorandum for the Secretary of Defense from the Joint Chiefs of Staff (Curtis LeMay, Acting Chairman) on the Proposal on "Recommended Courses of Action--Southeast Asia," (JCSM-746-64) 26 August 1964

Cable from Secretary Rusk on Importance of Air America Missions, 26 August 1964

Memorandum from the Joint Chiefs of Staff to Bundy and McNaughton on Operational Plans for September 1964, 27 August 1964

Memorandum from McNaughton to McNamara on JCS Targeting Study, 29 August 1964

Excerpts from "Freedom in the Postwar World," by Secretary Rusk before American Veterans of WW 11 and Korea, Philadelphia, 29 August 1964, Department of State Bulletin, 14 September 1964

Memorandum from McNamara on JCS Targeting Study, 31 August 1964

Draft of "Plan of Action for South Vietnam" 3 September 1964

Note from McGeorge Bundy on Information Booklet on Vietnam, 4 September 1964

Cold War International History Project, Mao Zedong and the Head of the Cultural Group of the Laotian Patriotic Front Sangsiv, 4 September 1964

Draft by W.P. Bundy, "Courses of Action for South Vietnam," 8 September 1964

Memorandum by W.P. Bundy, "Courses of Action for South Vietnam," Recording the consensus reached in discussions between Ambassador Taylor and Secretary Rusk, Secretary McNamara, and General Wheeler, for review and decision by the President, 8 September 1964

State/Defense Message to Saigon, Vientiane, Bangkok on Laos Corridor Operations, 9 September 1964

Memorandum for the Secretary of Defense on "Courses of Action for South Vietnam" by Earle Wheeler, Chairman, Joint Chiefs of Staff, 9 September 1964

Joint Chiefs of Staff, "Rules of Engagement, De Soto Patrol," 9 September 1964

National Security Action Memorandum No. 314, 10 September 1964

Lt Col Delmar C. Lang, USAF; Chronology of Events of 18-20 September 1964 in the Gulf of Tonkin; 14 Jan 1965

Cable, Saigon 913 to State, Summary of Conclusions of Meeting of Three Embassies Held in Saigon on 11 September to Review Air and Ground Operations in the Lao Corridor, 19 September 1964

Cable, CINCPAC to Joint Chiefs of Staff on De Soto Patrols, 21 September 1964

Cable, CINCPAC to Joint Chiefs of Staff on Planning for Future Contingencies, 25 September 1964

Cable, Joint Chiefs of Staff to CINCPAC, Definitive Rules of Engagement Applying to Laos," 28 September 1964

Cold War International History Project, Mao Zedong and Cambodian Prince Sihanouk, Beijing, 28 September 1964

"Progress and Problems in East Asia: An American Viewpoint," by William P. Bundy, Assistant Secretary for Far Eastern Affairs, Address made before the Research Institute of Japan at Tokyo, 29 September 1964, Department of State Bulletin, 19 October 1964

Memorandum for Mr. McNaughton from Cyrus Vance on Maritime Operations, 30 September 1964

Questions and Answers on Covert Activities, Questions by John T. McNaughton, Answers by JCS and ISA, Sept. 1964

SNIE 53-2-64, "The Situation in South Vietnam," 1 October 1964

Cable From CINCPAC to the Joint Chiefs of Staff on the Use of Thai-based US Air Force, 2 October 1964

Cable From Ambassador Taylor to Secretary Rusk, 3 October 1964

Mao Zedong and Pham Van Dong, Hoang Van Hoan; Beijing, 5 October 1964

Cable From Secretary Rusk to US Embassy in Laos on Air Attacks in Laos, 6 October 1964

Cable From Secretary Rusk to Ambassador Taylor in Saigon, 7 October 1964

Cable From Ambassador Taylor in Saigon to the State Department on Air War in Laos, 7 October 1964

Cable From Ambassador Taylor in Saigon to the State Department on the Terms of Reference for the Air War in Laos, 7 October 1964

Memorandum for Joseph Califano (author unknown) Reporting that the Lao Deputy Prime Minister Would Like to Expand Military Operations in the North, early October 1964

First Draft of "Aims and Options in Southeast Asia," by McNaughton, 13 October 1964

Cable from the Siagon Embassy to the Department of State on the Deteriorating Situation in South Vietnam, 14 October 1964

Memorandum from McNaughton to McNamara on US Search and Rescue Operations--Southeast Asia, 23 October 1964

JOINT STATE-DEFENSE MESSAGE, on Search and Rescue Operations and Cross-Border Operations, 26 October 1964

State/Defense Cable to Maxwell Taylor in Saigon on Proposed Expansion of Operations in Southeast Asia, 29 October 1964

State/Defense Cable 937 to Maxwell Taylor in Saigon on Legitimizing the Proposed Expansion of Operations in Southeast Asia, 29 October 1964

Intelligence Study Prepared by Headquarters, Military Assistance Command, Vietnam /1/, "Infiltration Study, Viet Cong Forces, Republic of Vietnam," 31 October 1964

Cable 1451 from the JCS to CINCPAC on Reaction to Bien Hoa Attack, 1 November 1964

Project Outline for Working Group on "Courses of Action in Southeast Asia," 3 November 1964

Ambassador Taylor's Comments on Plans for Action Against North Vietnam, 3 November 1964

Memorandum from Michael Forrestal to William Bundy on "US Objectives and Stakes in South Vietnam and Southeast Asia," 4 November 1964

Draft of a Paper by William Bundy on "CONDITIONS FOR ACTION AND KEY ACTIONS SURROUNDING ANY DECISION," 5 November 1964

Memorandum by William H. Sullivan to William Bundy on "Courses of Action in Viet Nam," 6 November 1964

Working Group Draft, "Probable Reactions to Options B and C," 6 November 1964

Working Group Draft, "Action for South Vietnam," 2nd Draft, McNaughton, 6 November 1964

Working Group Draft, "Action for South Vietnam," 3rd Draft, McNaughton, 7 November 1964

Draft Paper by William Bundy, "III: The Broad Options," 7 November 1964

Paper by Marshall Green, Deputy Assistant Secretary of State, "Immediate Actions in the Period Prior to Decision," (Part VIII of Working Group Outline), 7 November 1964

Memorandum for Members of the NSC Working Group, Draft Sections of Sections VII, IX, and X, Sent by William B. Bundy, 10 November 1964

NSC Working Group, Comment on Draft Section I, "Courses of Action in Southeast Asia," 10 November 1964

Memorandum for the Chairman, NSC Working Group on Southeast Asia, from L.M. Mustin, JCS Staff with Comments on the draft for Part II, "US Objectives and Stakes in South Vietnam and Southeast Asia," 10 November 1964

Cable from Maxwell Taylor (EMBTEL 1438) on U. Alexis Johnson Talk with Seaborn, 14 November 1964

JCS Memorandum (JCSM 955-64) on Actions Against North Vietnam (first section missing), 14 November 1964

Memorandum for William Bundy, Chairman of the NSC Working Group on Southeast Asia, from L.M. Mustin, JCS Staff, Providing Additional Material for Project on "Courses of Action in Southeast Asia," 14 November 1964

Personal Note from W.W. Rostow to Robert McNamara on "Military Dispositions and Political Signals," 16 November 1964

Part VI (Analysis of Option B), Section F. "Likely Developments and Problems if the Communist Side Engaged in Major Retaliation at Some Point," Unsigned. Undated.

JCS Memorandum to the Secretary of Defense on a Controlled Program of Increased Military Pressure Against North Vietnam, 18 November 1964

Memorandum to the Secretary of Defense on the Resumption of the De Soto Patrols, 18 November 1964

Memorandum from Henry Rowen to William Bundy, enclosing Rowen's and McNaughton's Comments on the Draft Paper, 23 November 1964

Memorandum to the Secretary of State from Walt Rostow, "Some Observations as We Come to the Crunch in Southeast Asia," 23 November 1964

Memorandum from William Bundy on "Issues Raised by Papers on Southeast Asia," 24 November 1964

NSC Working Group on Vietnam, "Section I: Intelligence Assessment: The Situation in Vietnam," 24 November 1964

Revised Paper by W. P. Bundy and J. McNaughton, "Courses of Action in Southeast Asia," 26 November 1964

Briefing by Ambassador Taylor on the Current Situation in South Vietnam, 27 November 1964

Paper titled "Summary of Recent MACV and CIA Cables on Infiltration," Author Unknown, 27 November 1964

Memorandum of Meeting on Southeast Asia, 27 November 1964

Memorandum for Southeast Asia Principals, "Scenario for Immediate Action Program," William P. Bundy, 28 November 1964

Memorandum for Southeast Asia Principals, "Draft Position Paper on Southeast Asia," William P. Bundy, 29 November 1964

Secretary Rusk's News Conference of December 23, Press Release dated 23 December 1964, Department of State Bulletin, 11 January 1965

1965

The Pentagon Papers, Gravel Edition, Volume 4, Chapter 1, "The Air War in North Vietnam, 1965-1968," pp. 1-276.

The Pentagon Papers, Gravel Edition, Volume 4, Chapter 2, "U.S. Ground Strategy and Force Deployments, 1965-1968," pp. 277-604.

A Conversation with Dean Rusk, NBC News Program on January 3, 1965, Department of State Bulletin, January 18, 1965

McNaughton's Observations about South Vietnam, 4 January 1965

Excerpt from The State of the Union Address of the President to the Congress, January 4, 1965

Memorandum by William P. Bundy, "Notes on the South Vietnamese Situation and Alternatives, 6 January 1965

Cable from U.S. Embassy (Saigon), [U.S. Security Measures in Vietnam] (January 6, 1965).

"America Policy in South Viet-Nam and Southeast Asia," William P. Bundy, Remarks Made Before the Washington (Mo.) Chamber of Commerce on January 23, 1965

Draft Memorandum by J.T. McNaughton, "Observations About South Vietnam After Khanh's 'Re-Coup'," 27 January 1965

McGeorge Bundy, "A Policy of Sustained Reprisal," 7 February 1965

Appendix to Memorandum from McGeorge Bundy to Lyndon Johnson, "A Policy of Sustained Reprisal" (February 7, 1965).

William Bundy Discusses Vietnam Situation, February 7, 1965

Letter from Mike Mansfield to Lyndon Johnson, [Views on Vietnam] (February 8, 1965).

The Pentagon Papers, Gravel Edition, Volume 2, Chapter 7, "Re-Emphasis on Pacification: 1965-1967," pp. 515-623.

"Voices from Americans in VietNam, February, 1965"  by JeDon A. Emenhiser, Humboldt State University Presented to the 24th Annual Meeting of the Popular Culture Association April 6, 1994 Chicago, Illinois

Memorandum to McGeorge Bundy from William P. Bundy, "Additional Military and Diplomatic Possibilities," 10 February 1965

Draft Memorandum from William P. Bundy, "Where are We Heading?" 18 February 1965

Minutes, "National Security Council Meeting, Thursday, February 18, 1965, Cabinet Room, 5:20 p.m."

Secretary Rusk's Defense of the Legal Basis for the American Bombing of North Vietnam, News Conference, 25 February 1965

Statement Submitted by Adlai Stevenson to U.N. Summarizing a Significant Report Entitled, "Aggression from the North, the Record of North Vietnam's Campaign to Conquer South Vietnam," Released 27 February 1965

"Aggression from the North," State Department White Paper on Vietnam, February 27, 1965

Zhou Enlai and Ho Chi Minh; Hanoi, 1 March 1965

Excerpts from "Some Fundamentals of American Policy," Address by Secretary Rusk Before the U.S. Council of the International Chamber of Commerce at New York, March 4, 1965

"Viet-Nam Action Called 'Collective Defense Against Armed Aggression,'" Department Statement read to news correspondents on March 4, 1965 by Robert J. McCloskey, Director, Office of News, US State Department

Memorandum from McGeorge Bundy to Lyndon Johnson, [Discussion on Vietnam] (March 6, 1965).

Draft Memorandum from McNaughton to Robert McNamara, "Proposed Course of Action re: Vietnam," (draft) 24 March 1965

Zhou Enlai and Algerian President Ben Bella; Algiers, 30 March 1965

Zhou Enlai and Pakistani President Ayub Khan; Karachi, 2 April 1965

NATIONAL SECURITY ACTION MEMORANDA, NSAM 328: Presidential Decisions with Respect to Vietnam, 6 April 1965

National Security Action Memorandum Number 328, 6 April 1965

Excerpts from "Pattern for Peace in Southeast Asia," Address by President Johnson at Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland on April 7, 1965

Li Shaoqi and Le Duan; Beijing, 8 April 1965

NATIONAL SECURITY ACTION MEMORANDA, NSAM 329: Task Force on Southeast Asian Economic and Social Development, 9 April 1965

NATIONAL SECURITY ACTION MEMORANDA, NSAM 330: Re 3/16/65 Rowan Report (Vietnamese Conflict), 9 April 1965

Cable from Ambassador Taylor to Dean Rusk on the Step-Up in Ground Forces, 17 April 1965

Hans Morgenthau, "We Are Deluding Ourselves in Vietnam," New York Times Magazine, 18 April 1965

Excerpts from an Address by Leonard Unger, Deputy Assistant Secretary for Far Eastern Affairs, before the Detroit Economic Club, "Present Objectives and Future Possibilities in Southeast Asia," April 19, 1965

Conversation between Soviet Ambassador to the PRC, S. V. Chervonenko and Chinese Prime Minister, Zhou Enlai (fragment) comparing the Algerian war for independence and the Vietnam War, April 20 1965

McNamara Report of Meeting in Honolulu with William Bundy, McNaughton, Taylor, Wheeler, Sharp, and Westmoreland, 21 April 1965

Address by Secretary Rusk, Made before the American Society of International Law on April 23, 1965, "The Control of Force in International Relations"

Statement by President Johnson at a News Conference at the White House on April 27, 1965 and Transcript of Secretary of Defense Robert S. McNamara's News Conference of April 26, 1965 on the Situation in Viet-Nam

Statement by Secretary Ball on May 3, 1965 at the Opening Session of the SEATO Council Ministers' 10th Meeting at London

Remarks by President Johnson at White House Before House and Senate Committees on May 4, 1965, "Congress Approves Supplemental Appropriation for Vietnam"

Address by William P. Bundy Before Dallas Council on World Affairs on May 13, 1965, "Reality and Myth Concerning South Vietnam"

Address by President Johnson Before the Association of American Editorial Cartoonists at the White House on May 13, 1965, "Viet-Nam: The Third Face of the War"

Mao Zedong and Ho Chi Minh; Changsha (Hunan), 16 May 1965

Zhou Enlai and Nguyen Van Hieu, Nguyen Thi Binh; Beijing (The Great Hall of the People), 16 May 1965

Zhou Enlai, Deng Xiaoping, and Ho Chi Minh; Beijing, 17 May 1965

Letter from Clark Clifford to Lyndon Johnson, [The Vietnam "Quagmire"] (May 17, 1965).

Address by William P. Bundy, Assistant Secretary for Far Eastern Affairs, Before the Faculty Forum of the University of California at Berkeley on May 27, 1965, "A Perspective on U.S. Policy in Viet-Nam"

Zhou Enlai and the Indonesian First Prime Minister Subrandrio; Guangzhou, 28 May 1965

Excerpt from Address by President Johnson in Chicago, Illinois on June 3, 1965, "The Peace of Mankind"

Zhou Enlai and Tanzanian President Julius Nyerere; Dar es Salaam, 4 June 1965

Cable from Westmoreland to CINCPAC on concept of operations, force requirements and deployments, 13 June 1965

Memo from George Ball to Rusk, McNamara, both Bundys, McNaughton, and Unger, Part II Only, 29 June 1965

Memo from W. Bundy, "Holding On in South Vietnam," 30 June 1965

Memorandum for the President from George Ball, "A Compromise Solution in South Vietnam," 1 July 1965

Time Magazine, "The Debate," (an article on a debate between Bundy and war critics at Georgetown University), 2 July 1965

Memorandum of Conversation, "Vietnam Panel" (July 10, 1965).

Mao Zedong and Hoang Van Hoan; Beijing, 16 July 1965

Notes for Memorandum from McNamara to Lyndon Johnson, "Recommendations of Additional Deployments to Vietnam," 20 July 1965

Secretary Rusk's Interview on Vietnam on "Issues and Answers," American Broadcasting Company Radio and Television on July 11, 1965, With ABC Correspondents William H. Lawrence and John Scali, Department of State Bulletin, August 2, 1965, p. 188.

Statement by President Johnson at White House News Conference on July 28, 1965, "We Will Stand in Viet-Nam," Department of State Bulletin, August 16, 1965, p. 262.

Statement by Secretary of Defense, Robert S. McNamara, Before the Subcommittee on Department of Defense Appropriations of the Senate Committee on Appropriations on August 4, 1965, "Buildup of U.S. Forces in VietNam," Department of State Bulletin, August 30, 1965, p. 369.

Interview with Secretary Rusk and Secretary McNamara on a Columbia Broadcasting System television program by Peter Kalischer, Alexander Kendrick, and Harry Reasoner, on August 9, 1965, "Political and Military Aspects of U.S. Policy in Viet-Nam," Department of State Bulletin, August 30, 1965, p. 342.

Zhou Enlai and Pham Van Dong; Beijing, 9 October 1965

Address by William P. Bundy, Assistant Secretary for Far Eastern Affairs, Before the Chicago Council on Foreign Relations, on November 5, 1965, "A Perspective on U.S. Policy in Viet-Nam," Department of State Bulletin, December 6, 1965, p. 890.

Report by Mcnamara After Visit to Vietnam, 30 November 1965

Paper, "Military and Political Actions Recommended for South Vietnam," Probably Written by Mcnamara, 7 December 1965

President Johnson's Telephone Remarks to the AFL-CIO Convention Meeting at San Francisco on December 9, 1965, "Why We Are in Viet-Nam," Department of State Bulletin, December 27, 1965, p. 1014.

Chen Yi and Nguyen Duy Trinh; Beijing, 17 December 1965

Zhou Enlai, Chen Yi and Nguyen Duy Trinh; Beijing, 18 December 1965

Zhou Enlai and Nguyen Duy Trinh; Beijing, 19 December 1965

Polish Secret Peace Initiatives in Vietnam, by Jerzy Michalowski

1966

Telegram From the Commander in Chief, Pacific (Sharp) to the Joint Chiefs of Staff, Honolulu, January 12, 1966

The State of the Union Address of President Johnson to the Congress (Excerpts), January 12, 1966; Department of State Bulletin, January 31, 1966, p. 153.

Memorandum to the President With Statistics for the Military Situation in Vietnam, Probably Prepared by McNamara, 22 January 1966

NATIONAL SECURITY ACTION MEMORANDA, NSAM 340: U.S. Government Shipments by Foreign Flag Vessels in North Vietnam Trade, 25 January 1966

Statement by President Johnson, U.S. and South Vietnamese Leaders Meet at Honolulu, February 6, 1966; Department of State Bulletin, February 28,
1966, p. 303.

Statement by Secretary Rusk Before the Senate Committee on Foreign Relations, February 18, 1966, "The U.S. Commitment in Viet-Nam: Fundamental Issues" (Broadcast Live on Nationwide Television Networks); Department of State Bulletin, March 7, 1966, p. 346.

Address by President Johnson at a Freedom House Dinner at New York, February 23, 1966, "Viet-Nam: The Struggle to Be Free," Department of State Bulletin, March 14, 1966, p. 390.

Selected Press Reactions to the Honolulu Conference, February 1966

Short Note re: Program to Increase the Effectiveness of Military Operations and Anticipated Results, Probably Written by McNamara, 8 February 1966

Legal Memorandum Prepared by Leonard C. Meeker, State Department Legal Advisor, for Submission to the Senate Committee on Foreign Relations, March 4, 1966, "The Legality of United States Participation in the Defense of Viet-Nam"; Department of State Bulletin, March 28, 1966, pp. 15-16

Address by Ambassador Arthur J. Goldberg, U.S. Representative to the United Nations, Before the Pilgrim Society at London, England on March 4, 1966, "America and Britain: Unity of Purpose"; Department of State Bulletin, April 4, 1966, p. 539.

Vice President Humphrey Reports to President on Asian Trip, White House Press Release of March 6, 1966; Department of State Bulletin, March 28, 1966, p. 490.

Address by Vice-President Humphrey at the National Press Club, Washington, DC, March 11, 1966, "United States Tasks and Responsibilities in Asia," Department of State Bulletin, April 4, 1966, p. 523.

Address by Secretary Rusk at the Founder's Day Banquet of the Boston University School of Public Communications at Boston, Massachusetts on March 14, 1966, "Keeping Our Commitment to Peace"; Department of State Bulletin, April 4, 1966, p. 514.

Article by Leonard Unger, Deputy Assistant Secretary of State for Far Eastern Affairs, "The United States and the Far East: Problems and Policies"; Department of State Bulletin, March 21, 1966, p. 452.

Zhou Enlai and Le Duan; Beijing, 23 March 1966

Address by Ambassador Arthur J. Goldberg, U.S. Representative to the United Nations, at the University of California, Berkeley, California on March 25, 1966, "The Quest for Peace"; Department of State Bulletin, April 18, 1966, p. 608.

NATIONAL SECURITY ACTION MEMORANDA, NSAM 343: Appointment of Special Assistant to the President for Peaceful Construction in Vietnam, 28 March 1966

Zhou Enlai, Deng Xiaoping, Kang Sheng and Le Duan, Nguyen Duy Trinh; Beijing, 13 April, 1966

NATIONAL SECURITY ACTION MEMORANDA, NSAM 346: Assignment of Highest National Priority to Critical Ammunition Items for South Vietnam and the Mark 48 Torpedo (R & D only), 26 April 1966

Statement by Secretary Rusk Before the Senate Committee on Foreign Relations on May 9, 1966, "Background of U.S. Policy in Southeast Asia"; Department of State Bulletin, May 30, 1966, p. 830.

Address by Secretary Rusk Before the Council on Foreign Relations at New York, New York on May 24, 1966, "Organizing the Peace for Man's Survival"; Department of State Bulletin, June 13, 1966, p. 926.

Address by Vice President Humphrey at Commencement Exercises at the United States Military Academy, West Point, New York on June 8, 1966, "Perspective on Asia"; Department of State Bulletin, July 4, 1966, p. 2.

Address by President Johnson at Omaha Municipal Dock on June 30, 1966, "Two Threats to Peace: Hunger and Aggression"; Department of State Bulletin, July 25, 1966, p. 115.

Peter Hayes and Nina Tannenwald, "Nixing Nukes In Vietnam," Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, May/June 2003, Volume 59, No. 3

Address by President Johnson on Nationwide Radio and Television to the American Alumni Council on July 12, 1966,"Four Essentials for Peace in Asia," Department of State Bulletin, August 1, 1966, p. 158

Department of State, Memorandum William P. Bundy-Bill Moyers, "Discussions Concerning the Diem Regime in August-October 1963," July 30, 1966

Address by President Johnson at the White House, 15 August 1966, "The Enemy We Face in Viet-Nam"; Department of State Bulletin, August 15, 1966, p. 227

Address by President Johnson before the Navy League at Manchester, N.H., August 20, 1966, "Our Objective in Vietnam"; Department of State Bulletin, September 12, 1966, p. 368.

Zhou Enlai and Pham Van Dong, Hoang Tung; Beijing, 23 August 1966

Memorandum from CIA. Directorate of Intelligence, "The Vietnamese Communists Will Persist" [Excerpt] (August 26, 1966).

Address by President Johnson before the American Legion National Convention in Washington, D.C. on August 30, 1966, "The True Meaning of Patriotism"; Department of State Bulletin, September 19, 1966, p. 425.

Statement by Arthur J. Goldberg before the U.N. General Assembly on September 22, 1966, "Initiative for Peace"; Department of State Bulletin, October 10, 1966, p. 518.

Address by Secretary Rusk before the Annual Meeting of the Association of State Colleges and National Association of State Universities and Land-Grant Colleges at Washington, D.C., November 15, 1966, "The Future of the Pacific Community"; Department of State Bulletin, December 5, 1966, p. 838.

1967

Letter from Secretary Rusk to 100 Student Leaders, January 4, 1967; "Secretary Rusk Redefines United States Policy on Viet-Nam for Student Leaders," Department of State Bulletin, January 23, 1967, p. 133.

The State of the Union Address of President Johnson to the Congress (Excerpts), January 10, 1967; Department of State Bulletin, January 30, 1967, p. 158

Secretary Rusk interview on 'Today' Program, January 12, 1967, With Hugh Downs from New York and Joseph C. Harsch in Washington; Department of State Bulletin, January 30, 1967, p. 168.

Address by William P. Bundy, Assistant Secretary of State for East Asian and Pacific A flairs, before the Commonwealth Club of California, at San Francisco, California, January 20, 1967; "East Asia Today," Department of State Bulletin, February 27, 1967, p. 323

Address by Secretary Rusk before a Joint Session of the Legislature of Texas at Austin, Texas, January 26, 1967; "Building a Durable Peace," Department of State Bulletin, p. 269.

Secretary Rusk Interview, Videotaped in Washington on January 31, 1967 and Broadcast by the British Independent Television Network on February 1, 1967; "Secretary Rusk Discusses Viet-Nam in Interview for British Television," Department of State Bulletin, February 20, 1967, p. 274.

Sir Montague Burton Lecture by W. W. Rostow, The University of Leeds, Leeds, England, 23 February 1967, "The Great Transition: Tasks of the First and Second Postwar Generations"; White House Press Release, 23 February 1967.

F.J. Dyson, R. Gomer, S. Weinberg, S.C. Wright, "Tactical Nuclear Weapons in Southeast Asia," Study S-266, Jason Division, Institute of Defense Analyses, contract DAHC15 67 C 0011, published March 1967; released to Nautilus Institute on December 4, 2003.

Address by President Johnson before a Joint Session of the Tennessee State Legislature at Nashville, Tennessee on March 15, 1967; "The Defense of Viet-Nam: Key to the Future of Free Asia," Department of State Bulletin, April 3, 1967, p. 534.

Hans J. Morgenthau, "To Intervene or Not To Intervene," Foreign Affairs, April 1967

Zhou Enlai and Pham Van Dong, Vo Nguyen Giap; Beijing, 3:30-6:30 p.m., 7 April 1967

Mao Zedong, Zhou Enlai and Pham Van Dong; Beijing, 10 April 1967

Mao Zedong and Pham Van Dong, Vo Nguyen Giap; Beijing, 11 April 1967

Vietnamese and Chinese Delegations; Beijing, 11 a.m., 11 April 1967

Zhou Enlai, Chen Yi and Pham Van Dong, Vo Nguyen Giap; Beijing, 12 April 1967

Address by William P. Bundy, Assistant Secretary of State for East Asian and Pacific Affairs, before the National Executive Committee of the American Legion at Indianapolis, Indiana on May 3, 1967; "Seventeen Years in East Asia," Department of State Bulletin, May 22, 1967, p. 790.

Secretary Rusk Interview by Paul Niven, Televised from the Department of State to 75 Affiliated Stations of National Educational Television on May 5, 1967; "A Conversation with Dean Rusk," Department of State Bulletin, May 22, 1967, p. 774.

NATIONAL SECURITY ACTION MEMORANDA, NSAM 362: Responsibility for U.S. Role in Pacification (Revolutionary Development), 9 May 1967

Chinese Deputy Foreign Minister Qiao Guanhua and Vietnamese Ambassador Ngo Minh Loan; Beijing, 13 May 1967

Address by Secretary Rusk before the National Conference of the U.S. Agricultural Stabilization and Conservation Service at Washington, D.C., May 18, 1967; "Our Foreign Policy Commitments to Assure a Peaceful Future," Department of State Bulletin, June 12, 1967, p. 874.

"VIETNAM: This Nation Is Caught On A Treadmill", Summarized from an Address Before Congress, By U.S. Representative Morris Udall Democrat, Second District of Arizona, Reveille, July, 1967, pp. 12.

Address by William P. Bundy, Assistant Secretary of State for East Asian and Pacific Affairs, before the 20th Annual Congress of the National Student Association at College Park, Maryland, August 15, 1967; "The Path to Viet-Nam: A Lesson in Involvement," Department of State Publication 8295, East Asian and Pacific Series 166, September 1967.

Remarks by President Johnson to the National Legislative Conference at San Antonio, Texas on September 29, 1967; "Answering Aggression in Viet-Nam," Department of State Publication 8305, East Asian and Pacific, Series 167, Released October 1967.

Secretary Rusk's News Conference of October 12, 1967; Department of State Press Release No. 227, October 12, 1967

Memorandum from Robert McNamara to Lyndon Johnson, " A Fifteen Month Program for Military Operations in Southeast Asia" (November 1, 1967).

Interview with Secretary Rusk, Videotaped at USIA Studios in Washington, D.C. on October 16, 1967 and Later Broadcast Abroad; "Secretary Rusk Discusses Viet-Nam in Interview for Foreign Television," Department of State Bulletin, November 6, 1967, p. 595.

The United States and Vietnam -What Lies Ahead?, by Morris K. Udall Reprinted from Congressman's Report, Morris K. Udall, 2d District of Arizona, October 23, 1967.

1968

The Tet Offensive, General Vo Nguyen Giap

Robert J. Hanyok, Spartans in Darkness: American SIGINT and the Indochina War, 1945-1975, Center for Cryptologic History, National Security Agency
2002, Chapter 3 - "To Die in the South": SIGINT, the Ho Chi Minh Trail, and the Infiltration Problem, [Deleted] 1968

Robert J. Hanyok, Spartans in Darkness: American SIGINT and the Indochina War, 1945-1975, Center for Cryptologic History, National Security Agency
2002 Chapter 7 - A Springtime of Trumpets: SIGINT and the Tet Offensive

James Risen, "U.S. Program Aimed to Make Hanoi Think Released Prisoners Were Spies," New York Times, November 4, 1999 (Project Urgency, 1968)

Surprised at Tet: U.S. Naval Forces in Vietnam, 1968 by Glenn E. Helm, Reference Librarian, Navy Department Library, Naval Historical Center

TET OFFENSIVE, 1968: Turning Point in the Vietnam War

THE 1968 'HUE MASSACRE' by D. Gareth Porter "Indochina Chronicle," #33, June 24, 1974

National Public Radio, Walter Cronkite, "Changing Attitudes Toward War in Vietnam," Aug. 7, 2002

Zhou Enlai and Ho Chi Minh; Beijing, 7 February 1968

Cable from Admiral Sharp to General Wheeler on Contingency Planning to Use Tactical Nuclear Weapons at Khe Sanh, February 1968, National Security Files; National Security Council Histories; Folder: March 31st Speech, volume 2; Box 47; LBJ Presidential Library, Austin, TX.

Notes regarding Secretary McNamara Testimony before the Senate Foreign Relations Committee, February 1968

Zhou Enlai and Pham Van Dong; Beijing, 13 April 1968

Zhou Enlai and Pham Van Dong, 17 April 1968

Zhou Enlai and Pham Van Dong, 19 April 1968

Conversation between Zhou Enlai, Kang Sheng, and Pham Van Dong; Beijing, 29 April 1968

Conversation between Zhou Enlai, Chen Yi, and Xuan Thuy; Beijing (The Great Hall of the People), 9:45 p.m., 7 May 1968

Conversation between Zhou Enlai and Pham Hung; Beijing, 19 June 1968

Conversation between Zhou Enlai and Pham Hung; Beijing, 29 June 1968

Memo to President Johnson from Walt Rostow on VC/North Vietnamese Political Strategy, September 6, 1968.

Conversation between Chen Yi and Le Duc Tho; Beijing, 17 October 1968

Christopher Andrew, For the President's Eyes Only: Secret Intelligence and the American Presidency from Washington to Bush (New York: HarperCollins, 1995), pp. 348-49

David Taylor, "The Lyndon Johnson tapes: Richard Nixon's 'treason'," BBC, 15 March 2013

Conversation between Mao Zedong and Pham Van Dong; Beijing, 17 November 1968

1969

Conversations between the Soviets and the Vietnamese, 1969

Robert J. Hanyok, Spartans in Darkness: American SIGINT and the Indochina War, 1945-1975, Center for Cryptologic History, National Security Agency
2002 Chapter 8 - In Our Own Image: NSA, Vietnamization, and the Expansion of South Vietnamese SIGINT, 1969-1973

US, Central Intelligence Agency, Special National Intelligence Estimate, SNIE 14–69, "The Pacification Effort in Vietnam," Washington, January 16, 1969.

Memorandum of Conversation, Meeting of President-elect Nixon with Henry Cabot Lodge, Statler Hilton Hotel, Washington, DC, Washington, January 19, 1969, 5:30 p.m.

Memorandum of Conversation Between Secretary of State Rogers and the Former Head of the Delegation to the Paris Peace Talks on Vietnam (Harriman)1, Washington, January 21, 1969.

US, National Security Study Memorandum 1, Washington, January 21, 1969.

Memorandum Prepared in the Central Intelligence Agency, "The Situation in Vietnam: Overview and Outlook," No. 0550/69 Washington, January 24, 1969.

Telegram From the Embassy in Vietnam to the Department of State, "For the Secretary from Bunker," Saigon, January 24, 1969

Meeting Between Presidential Assistant Kissinger and Ambassador Dobrynin, February 21, 1969

Memorandum of Conversation between President Richard Nixon and General Charles de Gaulle on Vietnam and Soviet role in Peace Negotiations, Paris, 28 February 1969

Moscow and the Vietnam Peace Talks, 1969

HERBERT MITGANG, "Victory in the Ashes of Vietnam?," (Review of Susan Sontag's Trip to Hanoi and NO MORE VIETNAMS? The War and the Future of American Foreign Policy, Edited by Richard M. Pfeffer). New York Times, February 4, 1969

Zhou Enlai and Kang Sheng's Comments to a COSVN Delegation; Beijing, 12 April 1969

Zhou Enlai, Kang Sheng and Pham Van Dong, Hoang Van Thai, Pham Hung and Others in the COSVN Delegation; Beijing, 20 and 21 April 1969

Li Xiannian and Le Duc Tho; Beijing, 29 April 1969

Memorandum of Conversation between President Nixon, Kissinger and Ambassador Dobynin (in which Kissinger asks for a "reasonable
interval" between an agreement and the establishment of any government in South Vietnam), Washington, May 14, 1969

Memorandum from Al Haig to Henry Kissinger, "Memorandum from Secretary Laird Enclosing Preliminary Draft of Potential Military Actions re Vietnam," 2 March 1969, enclosing a memorandum from Secretary of Defense Laird to Kissinger, 21 February 1969, and report [excerpts] from Joint Staff, Top Secret/Sensitive, with Kissinger's Memo Reply to Laird, 3 March 1969

US, National Security Agency (NSA) Cryptologic History Series: In the Shadow of War (To the Gulf of Tonkin), William D. Gerhard, June 1969

Memorandum of Conversation between Presidents Nicolae Ceaucescu and Richard Nixon on Vietnam, 3 August 1969, Bucharest, Romania

Memorandum from Henry A. Kissinger for the President, "Conversation with Soviet Ambassador Dobrynin," 1 October 1969, enclosing memorandum of conversation between Dobrynin and Kissinger, 27 September 1969

Memo from Secretary of Defense Melvin Laird to Nixon, Subject: Air and Naval Operations Against North Vietnam, 8 October 1969

Cable from JCS Chairman Wheeler to General Holloway on military readiness, CINCSAC et al., 10 October 1969

"Nixon's Nuclear Ploy: The Vietnam Negotiations and the Joint Chiefs of Staff Readiness Test, October 1969," National Security Archive Electronic Briefing Book No. 81, Edited by William Burr, National Security Archive and Jeffrey Kimball, Professor of History, Miami University, December 23, 2002

Jeremi Suri, "The Nukes of October: Richard Nixon's Secret Plan to Bring Peace to Vietnam," Wired Magazine, 25 February 2008

William Burr & Jeffrey Kimball, "Nixon’s nuclear ploy," Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, January/February 2003, Volume 59, No. 1, pp. 28-37, 72-73

Point Paper for the Chairman, JCS for a Meeting with the President, "Plan for US Military Readiness," circa 10 October 1969

Cable from CINCPAC to JCS, "Military Readiness," 12 October 1969

Diary Entry on Nixon's readiness order and its effect on the negotiations, Friday, 17 October, H. R. Haldeman Diary

Cable from JCS to CINCPAC, "Increased Readiness Posture," 17 October 1969

Dobrynin and Kissinger records of meeting with Nixon, 20 October 1969

Memorandum to Secretary of Defense from JCS Chairman Earle Wheeler, "US Military Readiness Tests--Worldwide," 22 October 1969

Cable from Strategic Air Command Headquarters to 12 Air Division et al., "Increased Readiness Posture," 23 October 1969

Cable from JCS to all Commanders of Unified and Specified Commands, "Increased Readiness Posture," 28 October 1969

President Nixon's Speech on "Vietnamization," November 3, 1969.

The "Chicago Seven" Trials, 1969-70

1970

The My Lai Courts Martials

Zhou Enlai and Pham Van Dong; Beijing, 4:20 pm, 21 March 1970

Zhou Enlai and Prince Sihanouk; Beijing, 11:40 pm, 22 March 1970

Zhou Enlai and Prince Sihanouk; Beijing, 9:10 pm, 28 March 1970

Zhou Enlai and Prince Sihanouk; Beijing, 4 pm, 1 April 1970

President Nixon, Address to the Nation on Progress Toward Peace in Vietnam, 20 April 1970

President Nixon's Speech on Cambodia, April 30, 1970.

President Nixon, Speech on the Deaths of Four Students at Kent State University, 4 May 1970

Mao Zedong and Le Duan; Beijing, the Great Hall of the People, 6:45-8:15 pm, 11 May 1970

US, National Security Agency (NSA) Working Against the Tide (COMSEC Monitoring & Analysis), Pts 1 & 2, Donzel E. Betts, June 1970

US, Kissinger to Nixon, "Contact with the Chinese," circa 12 September 1970, with excerpt from "Daily Brief" attached

US, Memorandum of Conversation, Kissinger and Jean Sainteny, Paris, 27 September 1970

President Nixon, Address to the Nation About a New Initiative for Peace in Southeast Asia, 7 October 1970

Tim Weiner, WORD FOR WORD / NIXON AND VIETNAM," [March 17, 1970; Oct. 22, 1972; Oct. 1, 1974], New York TImes, April 29, 2000

US, Kissinger to Nixon, "My Conversation with President Ceausescu, Tuesday, October 27", with memcon attached, Washington, DC, 31 October 1970

1971

Statement by John Kerry, Vietnam Veterans Against the War, to the Senate Committee on Foreign Relations, April 23, 1971

DELLUMS COMMITTEE HEARINGS ON WAR CRIMES IN VIETNAM April 25, 1971

The National Security Archive, "The Pentagon Papers: Secrets, Lies and Audiotapes," Audio and transcripts of Nixon’s first recorded conversations on June 13, 14 and 15 after publication of the Pentagon Papers

Richard Nixon, The Memoirs of Richard Nixon (New York: Grosset & Dunlap, 1978), pp. 508-515 on the Pentagon Papers

Henry Kissinger, Years of Upheaval (Boston: Little, Brown and Company, 1982), pp. 115-118 on the Pentagon Papers

H.R. Haldeman, The Haldeman Diaries (New York: Berkeley Books, 1995), pp. 363-371, 378 on the Pentagon Papers

Memorandum of Conversation, Kissinger and Zhou, "UN and Indochina," 21 October 1971, 4:42 - 7:17 p.m.

1972

Dobrynin record of meeting with Kissinger in which the North Vietnamese offensive is discussed, 3 April 1972

"South Vietnam: Thieu Unlikely to Win Emergency Powers," May 19, 1972, Citation: Folder "Thieu, President Nguyen Van (1)", Box 12, National Security Adviser. NSC Vietnam Information Group File, Gerald R. Ford Library

Ambassador Ellsworth Bunker's Cable Concerning Corruption in South Vietnam, July 19, 1972, Citation: Folder "Government of [South] Vietnam - Corruption (6)", Box 2, National Security Adviser. NSC Vietnam Information Group File, Gerald R. Ford Library

Jane Fonda Broadcast from Hanoi, August 22 1972

The Quang 1205 Document, REPORT OF THE DEPUTY CHIEF OF THE GENERAL STAFF OF THE VNA [VIETNAMESE PEOPLES ARMY] GENERAL-LIEUTENANT TRAN VAN QUANG AT THE POLITBURO MEETING OF THE TSK PTV, GENERAL STAFF OF THE ARMED FORCES OF THE USSR, MAIN INTELLIGENCE DIRECTORATE [GRU], 15 SEPTEMBER 1972 (translated from Vietnamese to Russian to English)

1973

Robert J. Hanyok, Spartans in Darkness: American SIGINT and the Indochina War, 1945-1975, Center for Cryptologic History, National Security Agency
2002 Chapter 9 - The Last Ramparts of Our Conceits: The DGTS, American SIGINT, and the Fall of South Vietnam, 1973-1975

Letter from President Nixon to President Nguyen Van Thieu of the Republic of Vietnam, January 5, 1973

"Peace With Honor": Radio-television broadcast, President Nixon, Vietnam Agreement, Jan. 23 1973

Excerpts from the Paris Accords, January 27, 1973.

Agreement on Ending the War and Restoring Peace in Vietnam, signed in Paris and entered into force January 17, 1973.

Flora Lewis, "Vietnam Peace Pacts Signed: America's Longest War Halts," New York Times, Jan. 28, 1973

President Richard Nixon's Meeting with Secretary of Defense Elliot Richardson and the Joint Chiefs of Staff on Recognition for Returning Prisoners of War, February 15, 1973

Speech by President Nixon Announcing the End of the Vietnam War in Audio Format

Public Law 93-148 93rd Congress, H. J. Res. 542 November 7, 1973, Joint Resolution, Concerning the war powers of Congress and the President.

1974

President Ford's Meeting on Foreign Aid with Secretary of State Henry Kissinger and the Bipartisan Congressional Leadership, September 12, 1974

US, National Security Agency (NSA): Focus on Cambodia, Pts 1 & 2, Cryptologic History Series, Southeast Asia, January 1974

1975

Robert J. Hanyok, Spartans in Darkness: American SIGINT and the Indochina War, 1945-1975, Center for Cryptologic History, National Security Agency
2002, The Still, Small Voice: Aftermath and Conclusions, 1975 and Beyond

Ambassador John Dean's Cable on the Cambodia Settlement, February 6, 1975

"Ominous Developments in Vietnam," March 12, 1975, Citation: Folder "7501509 - Ominous Developments in Vietnam", National Security Adviser. NSC Institutional Files, Gerald R. Ford Library

National Security Council Meeting Minutes, "Middle East, Vietnam, Cambodia," March 28, 1975

Malcolm Browne, "Da Nang's Fall Feared Imminent; U.S. Ships Sent to Help Refugees," New York Times, 30 March 1975

Assessment of General Fred C. Weyand's Report on Vietnam, April 5, 1975

National Security Council Meeting Minutes, "Indochina" April 9, 1975

National Security Council Meeting Minutes, "Indochina Evacuation," April 24, 1975

Fox Butterfield, "Panic Rises in Saigon, but the Exits Are Few," New York Times, 24 April 1975

The New York Times, "Cabinet Resigns; South Vietnam is Said to Aim for a Regime That Can Negotiate," 24 April 1975

Leslie Gelb, "Hanoi Is Signaling U.S. On Take-Over," New York Times, 24 April 1975

Richard Madden, "Ford Says Indochina War is Finished for America," New York Times, 24 April 1975

President Ford's Speech on the Fall of Vietnam, New Orleans, 24 April 1975

Malcolm Browne, "How Did it Happen? Some Replies," New York Times, 24 April 1975

National Security Council Meeting Minutes, "Indochina Evacuation," April 28, 1975

Malcolm Browne, "Minh Named in Move to End War; Red Forces Within Mile of Saigon as Tanks and Artillery Close In," New York Times, 28 April 1975

President Minh's Inaugural Address in Saigon Palace, New York Times, 28 April 1975

Fox Butterfield, "Saigon Hears the Fighting at Its Edge," New York Times, 28 April 1975

Secretary of State Henry Kissinger's Cable on President Gerald Ford's Decisions on the Saigon Evacuation, April 29, 1975

Helicopter Pilot Radio Transmissions During the Saigon Evacuation, April 29, 1975

John W. Finney, "U.S. Withdrawing Americans From Saigon by Helicopter Under Marine Protection; Vietcong Attack on Airport Forces Move," New York Times, 29 April 1975

Fox Butterfield, "Saigon Defenses Attacked; Airport Under Rocket Fire," New York Times, 29 April 1975

Malcolm Browne, "Vietcong's Reply to Minh Denounces U.S. Policies," New York Times, 29 April 1975

MALCOLM W. BROWNE, "Saigon's Finale," New York Times, October 13, 1999

FOX BUTTERFIELD with KARI HASKELL, "Getting it Wrong in a Photo," New York Times, April 23, 2000

John W. Finney, "Ford Unity Plea; President Says That Departure 'Closes a Chapter' for U.S.," New York Times, 30 April 1975

Bernard Gwertzman, "White House Considered the Surrender 'Inevitable'," New York Times, 30 April 1975

R.W. Apple, Jr., "Looking at U.S. Role in Vietnam," New York Times, 30 April 1975

George Esper, "Evacuation From Saigon Tumultuous at the End," New York Times, 30 April 1975

Excerpts From News Briefing by Kissinger, New York Times, 30 April 1975

Text of a statement made on behalf of the Provisional Revolutionary Government of South Vietnam and issued in translation by its representative in Paris, Dinh Ba Thi, New York Times, 30 April 1975

Agence France-Presse, "Saigon's Surrender Texts," 1 May 1975

George Esper, "Communists Take Over Saigon; 'Ho Chi Minh City'," New York Times, 1 May 1975

John W. Finney, "U.S. Rescue Fleet Is Picking Up Vietnamese Who Fled in Boats," New York Times, 1 May 1975

Leslie Gelb, "Vietnam, Test of Presidents, Was Distant War and Battle at Home," New York Times, 1 May 1975

Bernard Gwertzman, "Thieu Aide Discloses Promises of Force by Nixon to Back Pact," New York Times, 1 May 1975

Flora Lewis, "Saigon Reds Look to Nonalignment," New York Times, 1 May 1975

Flora Lewis, "Long Road to the Paris Pacts Had Misleading Signs, Pitfalls and Dead Ends," New York Times, 1 May 1975

Craig Whitney, "West Europeans See Fall of Saigon as Chastening Lesson for U.S.," New York Times, 1 May 1975

James M. Markham, "Vietcong, After Long Struggle, Attain a Vanguard Role in the South," New York Times, 1 May 1975

Drew Middleton, "Unconventional Tactics Paid Off for the North," New York Times, 1 May 1975

David Shipler, "Americans, Vietnamese: Mutual Misconceptions," New York Times, 1 May 1975

James P. Sterba, "For Front-Line Soldiers, War Had Bitter Flavor," New York Times, 1 May 1975

James P. Sterba, "Reaction of U.S. Troops: Relief, Tears and Anger," New York Times 1 May 1975

Iver Peterson, "The Long War in Vietnam: A History," New York Times, 1 May 1975

Fox Butterfield, "Six Days in the Evacuation From Saigon," New York Times, 4 May 1975

"Lessons of Vietnam" by Secretary of State Henry Kissinger, ca. May 12, 1975

Conversation between Chinese leader Mao Zedong and Cambodian leader Pol Pot, June 21 1975

Minutes of conversation between Deng Xiaoping and Le Duan on Chinese-Vietnamese relations, September 29 1975

Vietnam War Casualties

Vietnam: Yesterday and Today

U.S. War Crimes in Vietnam

FULL TEXT OF THE REPORTS FROM THE SESSIONS OF THE INTERNATIONAL WAR CRIMES TRIBUNAL, founded by Bertrand Russell.

SOURCES ON THE KHMER ROUGE YEARS: THE CAMBODIAN GENOCIDE PROGRAM

NAM VET Newsletter

General W. C. Westmoreland, USA, (Retired), "As I Saw It And Now See It: An Analysis Of America's Unique Experience In Vietnam," February, 1989

Vietnam Generation Journal

GATEWAY To The ... On-Line Vietnamese Community

Civic Action: The Marine Corps Experience in Vietnam, Part I, Peter Brush, Library Science, University of Kentucky

"Home Is Where You Dig It": (Observations on Life at the Khe Sanh Combat Base), Peter Brush

THE 1968 'HUE MASSACRE' by D. Gareth Porter, "Indochina Chronicle," #33, June 24, 1974

The Use of Armour in the Vietnam War

Brian Ross, The Australian Order of Battle in the Vietnam War

Brian Ross, Australia's Military Involvement in the Vietnam War

Brian Ross, Australia's involvement in the Vietnam War, the political dimension

Recommended Reading List on the VietNam War: Soc.history.war.vietnam FAQ

Brian Ross's Bibliography on Australia's Involvement in the Vietnam War

Selected Specialized Bibliography: Folklore and Folksongs of the Vietnam War

Specialized Bibliography: The My Lai / Son My Massacre and Its Aftermath

30-Year Anniversary: Tonkin Gulf Lie Launched Vietnam War, by Jeff Cohen and Norman Solomon, Media Beat, July 27, 1994

Review Essay, "A Failure of Political Intelligence," by Lieutenant Colonel Alan C. Cate, US Army

Edwin E. Moïse, Vietnam War Bibliography

VILLAGER ATTITUDES DURING THE FINAL DECADE OF THE VIETNAM WAR by Mark Moyar

The Importance of Story: Individual and Cultural Effects of Skewing the Realities of American Involvement in Southeast Asia for Social, Political and/or Economic Ends by John M. Del Vecchio

VIETNAM, "WARS OF THE THIRD KIND" AND AIR FORCE DOCTRINE by Dennis M. Drew

Sino-Soviet Relations and the February 1979 Sino-Vietnamese Conflict by Bruce Elleman, 20 April 1996

Vietnam and Desert Storm: Learning the Right Lessons from Vietnam for the Post-Cold War Era by Col. Joseph P. Martino, USAF (Ret)

The Relevance of the Tonkin Gulf Incidents: U.S. Military Action in Vietnam, August 1964 By Kim Weitzman

Military Intelligence in Southeast Asia, 1970- 1975 by Sedgwick Tourison

Vietnamese Defense against Aerial Attack, Paper Presented at the 1996 Vietnam Symposium, Center for the Study of the Vietnam Conflict, Lubbock, Texas, April 19, 1996, by Barton Meyers

THE MARINE WAR: III MAF IN VIETNAM, 1965-1971 by Jack Shulimson, U.S. Marine Corps Historical Center

Lloyd C. Whittaker, The Navy in Vietnam

Allied Participation in Vietnam by Lieutenant General Stanley Robert Larsen and Brigadier General James Lawton Collins, Jr., DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, WASHINGTON, D.C. 1985

Large Map of Vietnam

Historical Maps of Vietnam

The Vietnam War History Page

Harold P. Ford, "Revisiting Vietnam: Thoughts Engendered by Robert McNamara's In Retrospect," Studies in Intelligence, Volume 39 Number 5, 1996

"CIA and Operation Phoenix in Vietnam", Ralph McGehee, Date: 19 Feb 1996

Tapes of Conversations with President Johnson

Maps of the War in Vietnam

Summary of B-52 Missions in Vietnam

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY THE HERBICIDAL WARFARE PROGRAM IN VIETNAM, 1961 - 1971, Operations Trail Dust/Ranch Hand by H. Lindsey Arison III

Papers of the Eighth National Congress of the Communist Party of Vietnam 28 June - 1 July 1996

The World Wide Web Virtual Library: The Socialist Republic of Vietnam

The Wars for Vietnam, 1945-75, Vassar College

OPERATION RANCH HAND HERBICIDES IN SOUTHEAST ASIA 1961-1971 By William A. Buckingham, Jr., Ph.D.     

The Vietnam War--A Memorial and a Tribute

VILLAGER ATTITUDES DURING THE FINAL DECADE OF THE VIETNAM WAR by Mark Moyar

THE STORY BEHIND THE MCNAMARA LINE by Peter Brush (A version of this article appeared in Vietnam magazine, February, 1996, pp. 18-24.)

Gulf of Tonkin Notebook

McNamara asks Giap: What happened in Tonkin Gulf?

Stephen B. Young, "LBJ's Strategy for Disengagement,"  Vietnam

Cold War International History Project, "Le Duan and the Break with China," A 1979 document translated by Christopher E. Goscha, with an introduction by Stein Tønnesson

Retrospectives

DOAN VAN TOAI, "A Lament for Vietnam," NEW YORK TIMES MAGAZINE, March 29, 1981

DREW MIDDLETON, "Vietnam and the Military Mind," NEW TORK TIMES MAGAZINE, January 10, 1982

JAMES FALLOWS, "In Defense of an Offensive War," Review of WHY WE WERE IN VIETNAM by Norman Podhoretz, New York Times. March 28, 1982

FOX BUTTERFIELD, "The New Vietnam Scholarship," NEW YORK TIMES MAGAZINE, February 13, 1983

JOSEPH LELYVELD, "The Enduring Legacy," NEW YORK TIMES MAGAZINE, March 31, 1985

TRUONG NHU TANG, "A New Look at the Old Enemy," NEW YORK TIMES MAGAZINE, March 31, 1985

JAMES CHACE, "How America 'Lost the Peace'," Review of NO MORE VIETNAMS by Richard Nixon, New York Times, April 7, 1985

LESLIE H. GELB, "U.S. Power in Asia Has Grown Since Vietnam," New York Times, April 18, 1985

CHARLES MOHR, "History and Hindsight: Lessons From Vietnam," New York Times, April 30, 1985

BARBARA CROSSETTE, "Soldiers, Tanks and Rock 'n' Roll in Parade Marking Fall of Saigon," New York Times, May 1, 1985

JOHN LEBOUTILLIER, "Coming to Terms With Vietnam," NEW YORK TIMES MAGAZINE, May 1, 1988

STEVEN ERLANGER, "From a Lost War, a Haunting Echo That Won't Be Stilled," New York Times, August 31, 1988

US, National Security Agency, Purple Dragon: Origin and Development of US OPSEC Program, NSA Center for Cryptologic History, 1993

Tim O'Brien, "The Vietnam in Me," New York Times, October 2, 1994

Robert S. McNamara, "Our Government Lacked Experts...on Vietnam"--a brief excerpt from In Retrospect: The Tragedy and Lessons of Vietnam (Random House, 1995)

New York Times, "Mr. McNamara's War," April 12, 1995

New York Times, Books of the Times, "McNamara Concedes: 'We Were Wrong'," April 13, 1995, By Christopher Lehmann-Haupt

"McNamara's Retreat," New York Times, April 16, 1995, By Max Frankel

DAVID K. SHIPLER, "Robert McNamara and the Ghosts of Vietnam," NEW YORK TIMES MAGAZINE, August 10, 1997

Seth Mydans, "Of Soldiers Lost, but Not Forgotten, in Vietnam," New York Times, December 28, 1997

RICHARD BERNSTEIN, "In Vietnam, the Pen Was as Mighty as the Napalm," New York Times, December 1, 1998

PBS: The American Experience: Vietnam Online

"Presidential Decisionmaking and Vietnam: Lessons for Strategists," JOSEPH R. CERAMI, Parameters, Winter 1996-97, pp. 66-80.

AMERICAN MILITARY HISTORY, Center of Military History, United States Army, Washington, D.C., 1989, Chapter 28, THE U.S. ARMY IN VIETNAM, by Vincent H. Demma

"Vietnam in Retrospect: Could We Have Won?" JEFFREY RECORD,  Parameters, Winter 1996-97, pp. 51-65

JACK F. MATLOCK JR."Why Were We in Vietnam?" New York Times, August 8, 1999

"The Case for the Vietnam War," W. W. ROSTOW,  Parameters, Winter 1996-97, pp. 39-50.

"TAILWIND" REBUTTAL TO THE ABRAMS/KOHLER REPORT

The Green Beret Network, Tailwind Information Center

"The Paris Agreement on Vietnam: Twenty-Five Years Later", Conference Transcript, The Nixon Center, Washington, DC,   April 1998

Argument Without End: In Search of Answers to the Vietnam Tragedy By ROBERT S. McNAMARA, JAMES G. BLIGHT and ROBERT K. BRIGHAM with THOMAS J. BIERSTEKER and HERBERT Y. SCHANDLER, Chapter 1

Harold P. Ford, "Thoughts Engendered by Robert McNamara's 'In Retrospect'" Studies in Intelligence, US, Central Intelligence Agency, 1996

The New York Times, "The Fall of Saigon," various articles

PBS, "Battlefield Vietnam"

PBS, The American Experience, Vietnam Online

The "Chicago Seven" Trial, 1969-70

C-SPAN Archive of Tapes of President Johnson's White House Conversations

Gregg Easterbrook, "Was It Worth It?" Review of Michael Lind, Vietnam: The Necessary War, in The Washington Monthly, November 1999

VietnamWar.net

MICHAEL LIND, "PROLOGUE," Vietnam The Necessary War: A Reinterpretation of America's Most Disastrous Military Conflict, Free Press

Christopher Hitchens, "Brief Shining Moments," London Review of Books, Vol. 20, no. 4 (19 February 1998)

SAM TANENHAUS, "Playing Dominoes," New York Times, (Review of Lind's Book), October 24, 1999

RICHARD BERNSTEIN, "A Score Card for Vietnam: It Was Johnson 1, Nixon 0," (Review of Lind's Book) BOOKS OF THE TIMES, October 20, 1999

Jonathan Mirsky, "The Never-Ending War," The New York Review of Books, May 25, 2000

Current US-Vietnam Relations

Viet Nam News, National English Daily

BERNARD WEINRAUB, "Hanoi, in Economic Straits, Seeks to Move Toward Ties With U.S," New York Times, December 28, 1981

CRAIG R. WHITNEY, "A Bitter Peace: Life in Vietnam," NEW YORK TIMES MAGAZINE, October 30, 1983

BARBARA CROSSETTE, "All Vietnam Is Now a Stage; Its Players Are Mostly Angry," New York Times, April 22, 1988

FOX BUTTERFIELD, "Though Unofficial, Change Is in the Air for U.S.-Hanoi Ties," New York Times, September 20, 1988

STEVEN ERLANGER, "Vietnam, Drained by Dogmatism, Tries a 'Restructuring' of Its Own," New York Times, April 24, 1989

PHILIP SHENON, "Reaching for the Good Life in Vietnam," NEW YORK TIMES MAGAZINE, January 5, 1992

MALCOLM W. BROWNE, "Overcrowded Vietnam Is Said to Face Catastrophe," New York Times, May 8, 1994

ALISON MITCHELL, "U.S. Grants Vietnam Full Ties; Time for Healing, Clinton Says," New York Times, July 12, 1995

U.S. Department of State, US-Vietnam Relations

CRAIG R. WHITNEY, "Hanoi Now, Meet Saigon Then," New York Times, December 28, 1997

SETH MYDANS, "Vietnam Sees War's Legacy in Its Young," New York Times, May 16, 1999

JANE PERLEZ, "New U.S. Consulate Opens in Saigon," New York Times, September 8, 1999

Ward Just, "Why I Was in Vietnam," New York Times, March 19, 2000

SETH MYDANS, "Vietnam Finds an Old Foe Has New Allure," New York Times, April 13, 2000

SETH MYDANS, "A Resurrected Picture of the Vietnam War, From the Other Side," New York Times, April 19, 2000

MARK LANDLER, "Widening Economic Gap Keeps Vietnam Divided," New York Times, April 21, 2000

SERGE SCHMEMANN, "To Vietnam and Back. And Back. And Back," New York Times, April 23, 2000

Seth Mydans, "A War Story's Missing Pages: Vietnam Forgets Those Who Lost," New York Times, April 24, 2000

Walter A. McDougall, "Who Were We in Vietnam?" New York Times, April 26, 2000

Elizabeth Becker, "Vietnam Circles Slightly Closer to Military Ties to U.S.," New York Times, April 27, 2000

Mark Landler, "McCain, in Vietnam, Finds the Past Isn't Really Past," New York Times, April 27, 2000

John Kifner, "A Case Study in Disaster for Tomorrow's Generals," New York TImes, April 28, 2000

Francis X. Clines, "Students From Then and Now Pass On Painful Lessons of Kent State," New York Times, April 28, 2000

Mark Landler, "Making Nike Shoes in Vietnam," New York Times, April 28, 2000

Seth Mydans, "Old Wounds Slow U.S.-Vietnam Reconciliation," New York Times, April 29, 2000

Seth Mydans, "In Village's Long History, Vietnam War Is Fleeting," New York Times, April 30, 2000

Seth Mydans, "An Ageless Saigon Basks in Peace," New York Times, May 1, 2000

E. Anthony Wayne, Assistant Secretary for Economic and Business Affairs, U.S. Department of State, "The U.S. and Vietnam," Remarks to the American Chamber of Commerce, Hanoi, Vietnam, July 26, 2001

National Public Radio, "McNamara, Morris and 'The Fog of War': A Chat with the Filmmaker Who Kept the Defense Chief Talking," 20 December 2003

Washington Post, Interview with President Gerald Ford conducted by Bob Woodward and Christine Parthemore, "No Point In Being Bitter," 31 December 2006

Tim Weiner, "Robert S. McNamara, Architect of a Futile War, Dies at 93," New York Times, July 6, 2009

Bob Herbert, "After the War Was Over," New York Times, 6 July 2009

Thomas W. Lippman, "Robert S. McNamara, 1916 - 2009: 'Terribly Wrong' Handling of Vietnam Overshadowed Record of Achievement," Washington Post, July 7, 2009

Joseph A. Califano Jr., "The McNamara I Knew," Washington Post, July 7, 2009

David Ignatius, "Certainty That Hit a Wall," Washington Post, July 7, 2009

Jim Hoagland, "Brightness Cloaked In Hubris," Washington Post, July 7, 2009

Walter Pincus, "Remembering McNamara's Hope for Peace," Washington Post, July 7, 2009

Dr. Henry A. Kissinger, "The American Experience in Southeast Asia, 1946-1975," East Auditorium, George C. Marshall Conference Center, Washington, D.C., September 29, 2010

Keynote Address by Ambassador Richard C. Holbrooke, "The American Experience in Southeast Asia, 1946-1975," East Auditorium, George C. Marshall Conference Center, Washington, D.C., September 29, 2010

The View from Hanoi: Historians from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam, "The American Experience in Southeast Asia, 1946-1975," East Auditorium, George C. Marshall Conference Center. Washington, D.C., September 29, 2010

Senior Scholars’ Interpretations of the American Experience in Southeast Asia, "The American Experience in Southeast Asia, 1946-1975," East Auditorium, George C. Marshall Conference Center, Washington, D.C., September 29, 2010

With Friends Like These: The United States and its Allies, "The American Experience in Southeast Asia, 1946-1975," East Auditorium, George C. Marshall Conference Center, Washington, D.C., September 30, 2010

The American Experience in Southeast Asia, 1946-1975, "Fighting While Negotiating: Force and Diplomacy in the Vietnam War," East Auditorium, George C. Marshall Conference Center, Washington, D.C., September 30, 2010

The American Experience in Southeast Asua, 1946-1975, "The Battle for Hearts and Minds: Counterinsurgency and Reconstruction Programs in Vietnam," East Auditorium, George C. Marshall Conference Center. Washington, D.C.. September 30, 2010

The American Experience in Southeast Asia, 1946-1975, "Ours to Reason Why: Intervention in Vietnam, Reaction in America," East Auditorium, George C. Marshall Conference Center, Washington, D.C., September 30, 2010

 



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