PR and the Representation of Minorities

AMY, DOUGLAS J. Real Choices/New Voices: How Proportional Representation Elections Could Revitalize American Democracy. New York: Columbia University Press, 2002. Chapter 5.

----. "District Shapes and Interest Representation." In Voting and Democracy Report 1995 (Washington, D.C.: The Center for Voting and Democracy, 1995), pp. 87-90.

----. "Proportional Representation: A Tool for Empowering Minorities and the Poor." Poverty and Race, Vol.3, No. 5 (Sept./Oct. 1994), 1-2,10. Washington, D.C.: Poverty and Race Research Council.

ANDERSON, JOHN. "A Better Approach to Boosting Minority Representation?" The Christian Science Monitor, July 6, 1993, 18.

ANDERSON, JOHN. "A Way to End `Political Apartheid.'" USA Today, August 3, 1994, p. 9A.

APPLEBOME, PETER. "Guinier Ideas, Once Seen as Odd, Now Get Serious Study." The New York Times, April 3, 1994, E5.

BOWLER, SHAUN, Todd Donovan, David Brockington, and Sheila Mello.  Electoral Reform and Minority Representation: Local Experiments With Alternative Elections.  Ohio State University Press, 2003.

BRIFFAULT, RICHARD. "Lani Guinier and the Dilemmas of American Democracy." Columbia Law Review, Vol. 95, 1995, 418-472.

BRISCHETTO, ROBERT. "Cumulative Voting and Latino Representation:  Exit Surveys in Fifteen Texas Communities." Social Science Quarterly 78, no.4, p. 973.

---. "Cumulative Voting at Work in Texas." In Voting and Democracy Report 1995 (Washington, D.C.: The Center for Voting and Democracy, 1995), pp. 61-65.

----. "Cumulative Voting as an Alternative to Districting: An Exit Survey in 16 Texas Communities." Poverty and Race. Vol. 4, No. 5 (Sept./Oct. 1995), 5-8. Washington, D.C.: Poverty and Race Research Council.

BROCKINGTON, DAVID, TODD DONOVAN and SHAUN BOWLER. "Minority Representation under Cumulative and Limited Voting." The Journal of Politics 60, no. 4 (Nov. 1998), p. 1108-25.

BUCKLEY, STEPHEN. "Unusual Ruling in Rights Case: Md. County Must Use Cumulative Voting," The Washington Post, April 6, 1994.

BURNHAM, ROBERT. "Reform, Politics, and Race in Cincinnati: Proportional Representation and the City Charter Committee, 1924-1959." Journal of Urban History. Vol. 23, No. 2 (1997): 131.

COHEN, FRANK. "Proportional versus Majoritarian Ethnic Conflict Management in Democracies." Comparative Political Studies. Vol. 30. (October 1997), 607-30.

COLE, RICHARD and DELBERT TAEBEL. "Cumulative Voting in Local Elections: Lessons from the Alamagordo Experience." Social Science Quarterly 73, no. 1 (March 1992): 194-201.

ENGSTROM, RICHARD L. "Modified Multi-Seat Election Systems As Remedies for Minority Vote Dilution." Stetson Law Review, Vol. 21, No. 3, Summer 1992, 743-770.

----. "Alternative Judicial Election Systems: Solving the Minority Dilution Problem," in Wilma Rule and Joseph Zimmerman (eds.), United States Electoral Systems: Their Impact on Women and Minorities. New York: Greenwood Press, 1993.

----. "The Single Transferable Vote: An Alternative Remedy for Minority Vote Dilution." University of San Francisco Law Review, Vol. 27, Summer 1993, 781-813.

ENGSTROM, RICHARD and CHARLES BARRILLEAUX, "Native Americans and Cumulative Voting: The Sisseton-Wahpeton Sioux." Social Science Quarterly, Vol. 72, No. 2, June 1991, pp. 388-393.

ENGSTROM, RICHARD, DELBERT A. TAEBEL, and RICHARD COLE. "Cumulative Voting as a Remedy for Minority Vote Dilution: The Case of Alamogordo, New Mexico." Journal of Law and Politics 5 (1989): 469-97.

GUINIER, LANI. The Tyranny of the Majority: Fundamental Fairness in Representative Democracy. New York: Free Press, 1994.

----. "The Task Ahead: Breathing New Life into American Democracy." Chapter nine in Lift Every Voice. New York:Simon and Schuster, 1998.

----. "Don't Scapegoat the Gerrymander," The New York Times Magazine, January 8, 1995, 36-37.

----. "The Triumph of Tokenism: The Voting Rights Act and the Theory of Black Electoral Success. Michigan Law Review, Vol. 89, No. 5, March 1991, 1077-1154.

HERTZBERG, HENDRIK. "Along Racial Lines." The New Yorker, April 4, 1994, 7.

HILL, STEVEN. "Warring for the Heart of the Voting Rights Act." The Christian Science Monitor, June 25, 1996.

HOFFMAN, MATTHEW. "Time to Scrap District-Based Voting." Roll Call, June 27, 1996.

ISSACHAROFF, SAMUEL and RICHARD PILDES.  "All for One:  Can Cumulative Voting Ease Racial Tensions? The New Republic (Nov. 18, 1996) p. 10.

KAPLAN, DAVID. "Alternative Election Methods: A Fix for a Besieged System?" Congressional Quarterly, April 2, 1994, 812-813.

KIRKSEY, JASON, et al. "Cumulative Voting in Alabama County." In Voting and Democracy Report 1995 (Washington, D.C.: The Center for Voting and Democracy, 1995), pp. 67-68.

MCKINNEY, CYNTHIA. "Keep It Simple." Boston Review, March/April 1998. http://www-polisci.mit.edu/bostonreview/BR23.1/

MULROY, STEVEN. "When the U.S. Government Endorses PR: Just Department Positions on Alternative Electoral Schemes." In Voting and Democracy Report 1995 (Washington, D.C.: The Center for Voting and Democracy, 1995), pp. 99-102.

THE NATION. "Wronging Voting Rights." The Nation. July 8, 1996. Editorial.

PAGE, CLARENCE. "When Votes Start to Really Matter." Chicago Tribune, July 2, 1995, op-ed page.

PILDES, RICHARD and DONOGHUE, KRISTEN. "Cumulative Voting in the United States." The University of Chicago Legal Forum, Vol. 1995, 241-313.

PILDES, RICHARD H. "Gimme Five." The New Republic, March 1, 1993, 16-17.

PILLSBURY, GEORGE. "Voting Block." The Nation, October 24, 1994, 445.

RASPBERRY, WILLIAM. "Super Districts -- Without the Image Problem." Washington Post, June 27, 1996.

RASPBERRY, WILLIAM. "The Balkanization of America." The Washington Post, July 7, 1995, op-ed page.

----. "Super Districts -- Without the Image Problem." The Washington Post, June 27, 1996.

REDING, ANDREW. "Making Every Vote Really Count." Los Angeles Times, July 17, 1994, M5.

RICHIE, ROBERT. "Cumulative Voting Captures Imagination of Electoral Reformers." National Civic Review, Winter 1993, 72-74.

----. "Preference Voting vs. Cumulative Voting: Preference Voting is the Better System for Local Government." In Voting and Democracy Report 1995 (Washington, D.C.: The Center for Voting and Democracy, 1995), pp. 73-76.

ROSENKRANZ, E. JOSHUA. "Solving the Race Problem." Boston Review, March/April 1998. http://www-polisci.mit.edu/bostonreview/BR23.1/

RULE, WILMA AND JOSEPH F. ZIMMERMAN (eds.). Electoral Systems in Comparative Perspective: Their Impact on Women and Minorities. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1994.

RULE, WILMA and JOSEPH F. ZIMMERMAN. United States Electoral Systems: Their Impact on Women and Minorities. New York: Greenwood Press, 1993.

RUSH, MARK, Richard Lee Engstrom and Bruce E. Cain. Fair and Effective Representation? New York:  Rowman and Littlefield, 2001.

SHUGART, MATTHEW S. "Minorities Represented and Unrepresented" in Electoral Systems in Comparative Perspective: Their Impact on Women and Minorities, edited by Rule and Zimmerman. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1994.

STILL, EDWARD, "Cumulative Voting and Limited Voting in Alabama," in Wilma Rule and Joseph Zimmerman (eds.), United States Electoral Systems: Their Impact on Women and Minorities. New York: Greenwood Press, 1993.

----. "Alternatives to Single Member Districts." In Minority Vote Dilution, edited by Davidson, 249-67. Washington D.C.: Howard University Press, 1984.

STILL, EDWARD and PAMELA KARLAN. "Cumulative Voting and the Voting Rights Act: Amicus Curiae in a Maryland Voting Rights Case." In Voting and Democracy Report 1995 (Washington, D.C.: The Center for Voting and Democracy, 1995), pp. 91-95.

---. "Cumulative Voting as a Remedy in Voting Rights Cases." National Civic Review Vol. 84 (Fall/Winter 1995): 337-346.

TAAGEPERA, REIN. "Beating the Law of Minority Attrition," in Electoral Systems in Comparative Perspective: Their Impact on Women and Minorities, edited by Rule and Zimmerman. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1994.

TAEBEL, DELBERT A., RICHARD ENGSTROM and RICHARD COLE. "Alternative Electoral Systems as Remedies for Minority Vote Dilution," Hamline Journal of Public Law and Policy, Vol. 11, Spring 1990, pp. 19-29.

THOMAS, CLARENCE. "Justice Thomas on Proportional Voting Systems: Excerpts from Concurring Opinion in Holder v. Hall. In Voting and Democracy Report 1995 (Washington, D.C.: The Center for Voting and Democracy, 1995), p. 108.

TIMPONE, RICHARD. "Electoral Systems Matter: An Experimental Examination of Different Systems." In Voting and Democracy Report 1995 (Washington, D.C.: The Center for Voting and Democracy, 1995), pp. 69-72.

USA TODAY, "Achieving Fairness at Polls Demands Creative Thinking." USA Today, June 21, 1996: Editorial.

USA TODAY, "A Route to Fairer Voting." USA Today, June 30, 1995, p. 12A.

VAN BIEMA, DAVID. "One Person, Seven Votes." Time, April 25, 1994, 42-43.

WEAVER, LEON and JUDITH BAUM, "Proportional Representation on New York City Community School Boards," in Wilma Rule and Joseph Zimmerman (eds.), United States Electoral Systems: Their Impact on Women and Minorities. New York: Greenwood Press, 1993.

ZIMMERMAN, JOSEPH F., "Enhancing Representational Equity in Cities," in Wilma Rule and Joseph Zimmerman. United States Electoral Systems: Their Impact on Women and Minorities. New York: Greenwood Press, 1993.

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