PR and the Representation of Women

AMY, DOUGLAS J. Real Choices/New Voices: How Proportional Representation Elections Could Revitalize American Democracy. New York: Columbia University Press, 2002. Chapter 6.

BARKMAN, KERSTIN. "Politics and Gender: The Need for Electoral Reform." Politics, Vol. 15, No. 3 (1996): 141-146.

BRICHTA, AVRAHAM AND YAEL BRICHTA. "The Extent of the Impact of the Electoral System upon the Representation of Women in the Knesset," in Electoral Systems in Comparative Perspective: Their Impact on Women and Minorities, edited by Rule and Zimmerman. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1994.

HOECKER, BEATE. "The German Election System: A Barrier to Women?" in Electoral Systems in Comparative Perspective: Their Impact on Women and Minorities, edited by Rule and Zimmerman. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1994.

INTER-PARLIAMENTARY UNION. Distribution of Seats Between Men and Women in National Parliaments: Statistical Data from 1945 to 30 June 1991. Geneva: Inter-Parliamentary Union, 1991.

JONES, MARK. "Gender Quotas and PR in Argentina: Increasing Women's Representation." In Voting and Democracy Report 1995 (Washington, D.C.: The Center for Voting and Democracy, 1995), pp. 176.

JONES, MARK and PATRICIO NAVIA. "Assessing the Effectiveness of Gender Quotas in Open-List Proportional Representation Electoral Systems." Social Science Quarterly 80, no.2, p. 341.

KARAM, AZZA.  Women in Parliament:  Beyond the Numbers.  Stockholm, Sweden:  International IDEA, 1998.

MATLAND, RICHARD. E. "Enhancing Women's Political Participation:  Legislative Recruitment and Electoral Systems" in Azza Karam,  Women in Parliament:  Beyond the Numbers.  Stockholm, Sweden:  International IDEA, 1998.

MATLAND, RICHARD E. and DONLEY STUDLAR. "The Contagion of Women Candidates in Single-Member Districts and Proportional Representation Electoral Systems: Canada and Norway." The Journal of Politics. Vol. 58, No. 1 (1996): 707.

McNEELY, THEODORE. "`Woman Power' in Japan's 1989 Upper House Election," in Electoral Systems in Comparative Perspective: Their Impact on Women and Minorities, edited by Rule and Zimmerman. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1994.

RULE, WILMA. "Electoral Systems, Contextual Factors and Women's Opportunity for Election to Parliament in Twenty-Three Democracies." Western Political Quarterly (September 1987), 40(3):477-498.

----. "Multimember Legislative Districts: Minority and Anglo Women's and Men's Recruitment Opportunity," in Wilma Rule and Joseph Zimmerman (eds.), United States Electoral Systems: Their Impact on Women and Minorities. New York: Greenwood Press, 1993.

RULE, WILMA AND MATTHEW SHUGART. "The Preference Vote and Election of Women: Women Win More Votes in Open List PR." In Voting and Democracy Report 1995 (Washington, D.C.: The Center for Voting and Democracy, 1995), pp. 177-178.

RULE, WILMA AND JOSEPH F. ZIMMERMAN. Electoral Systems in Comparative Perspective: Their Impact on Women and Minorities. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1994.

RULE, WILMA and JOSEPH F. ZIMMERMAN. United States Electoral Systems: Their Impact on Women and Minorities. New York: Greenwood Press, 1993.

RULE, WILMA and PIPPA NORRIS, "Anglo and Minority Women's Representation in Congress: Is the Electoral System the Culprit?" in Wilma Rule and Joseph Zimmerman (eds.), United States Electoral Systems: Their Impact on Women and Minorities. New York: Greenwood Press, 1993.

RYDON, JOAN. "Representation of Women and Ethnic Minorities in the Parliaments of Australia and New Zealand," in Electoral Systems in Comparative Perspective: Their Impact on Women and Minorities, edited by Rule and Zimmerman. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1994.

WEAVER, LEON. "Women and Minorities in the Proportional Representation System of New York Community School Boards." Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Political Science Association, Atlanta, September 1989.

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