Most Web sites concerning proportional representation are located in Great
Britain, the United States, and Canada -- which is not surprising since these
are the only three Western industrialized democracies that are still hobbled
with the single-member district, winner-take-all system of election.
Proportional Representation for the U.S.
PR Organizations Around the World
- Fair Vote Canada. A site with a much useful information,
including a good question and answer section. The organization aims
to educate Canadians about the inherent inequities in their current voting system and the strengths and weaknesses of various alternative systems, such as proportional representation.
Their ultimate objective is to gain the support of all federal political parties
for a national referendum on voting systems.
- Citizen's Assembly on
A fascinating grass-roots approach to electoral reform. 160 randomly
chosen citizens are meeting in British Columbia, Canada to study their
voting system and decide whether it should be changed.
- Electoral Reform Society Founded
in England in 1884, the ERS is the longest continuous PR organization.
This site contains particularly good information about the single
transferable vote -- the Society's preferred form of PR. They also have an
excellent analysis of the recent report issued by the Jenkins Commission
that recommends a new voting system for British parliamentary elections.
An independent organization in Great Britain that supports a number of
political reforms, including a change to more proportional
- Make Votes Count.
coalition of groups -- including Charter 88, Electoral Reform
Society, Fawcett Society, Liberal Democrats, New Politics Network, and
Labour Campaign for Electoral Reform, and the Green Party -- that is
working on a campaign for a referendum that would create a more
proportional voting system. Make
Votes Count In West Sussex is a good example of this group at
work on the local level.
- Power: An Independent Inquiry into Britain's Democracy.
This group has completed a study of the British political system that
endorses, among other things, a switch from winner-take-all to
proportional representation elections. The study, "Power to the
People," can be downloaded here.
- The McDougall Trust.
The mission of this British organization is to encourage research on
"methods of election of and the selection and government of
representative organisations whether national, civic, commercial,
industrial or social." They are publishers of the journal
"Representation" -- a leading scholarly journal on
elections and electoral systems.
- Proportional Representation
Society of Australia Like the ERS, this organization is a long
established proponent of PR, especially the single transferable vote
(called "Hare Clark quota preferential voting").
- Electoral Reform Coalition of
New Zealand. This organization led the successful fight to
bring mixed-member PR to New Zealand. The are now on a campaign for
using the single transferable vote for local elections.
Sites with Information on Voting Systems
- International IDEA (International
Institute for Democracy and Electoral Assistance) is located in
Stockholm and its overall objective is to promote and advance sustainable
democracy world-wide and to improve and consolidate electoral processes.
This site has descriptions of several important books and studies produced
by IDEA that are of relevant reading for those interested in PR. They
include Obstacles to Women’s Participation in Parliament, by
Nadezdha Shvedova, the International IDEA Handbook of Electoral System
Design by Andrew Reynolds and Ben Reilly, and an internet available
report on "Global Voter Turnout."
Jenkins Report Released Great Britain in the fall of 1998, this is the path breaking
report of the commission appointed by Prime Minister Blair to study
possible changes in the British voting system. The detailed report
analyzes the advantages and disadvantages of various elections systems,
and then concludes by recommending that a public referendum be held to
choose between the traditional single-member district plurality system,
and a new two-vote system that would add a degree of proportional
representation to British elections.
Results and Voting Systems. From Great Britain, this site contains
detailed descriptions of various PR voting systems, allocation formulas, etc.
Representation Voting in Cambridge Municipal Elections.
Cambridge is the only city in the U.S. currently using a fully
proportional representation system. This site contains information about the use of the single
transferable vote there.
- Elections in Malta: The Single
Transferable Vote System in Action, 1921 - 1996 . This non-partisan
site contains a great deal of data and analysis of the performance of STV
in Maltese elections.
- Electoral Systems of the World. Lists the voting systems
used by every democratic country in the world, either in table
form or in map
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