Central America 1821-1871: Liberalism before Liberal Reform (Lowell Gudmundson)
Central America and its ill-fated federation (1824-1839) are often viewed as the archetype of the “anarchy” of early independent Spanish America. This book consists of two interralted essays dealing with the economic, social, and political changes that took place in Central America, changes that let to both Liberal regime consolidation and export agricultural development after the middle of the last century. The authors provide a challenging reinterpretation of Central American history and the most detailed analysis available in English of this most heterogeneous and obscure of societies. It avoids the dichotomous (Costa Rica versus the rest of Central America) and the centralist (Guatemala as the standard or model) treatments dominant in the existing literature and is required reading for anyone with an interest in 19th century Latin America.
Costa Rica Before Coffee: Society and Economy on the Eve of the Export Boom (Lowell Gudmundson)
Costa Rica Before Coffee centers on the decade of the 1840s, when the impact of coffee and export agriculture began to revolutionize Costa Rican society. Lowell Gudmundson focuses on the nature of the society prior to the coffee boom, but he also makes observations on the entire sweep of Costa Rican history, from earliest colonial times to the present, and in his final chapter compares the country's development and agrarian structures with those of other Latin American nations. Thes author convincingly portrays the 1840s as they key decade in any interpretation of Costa Rican history. He uses an array of sources, including census records, notary archives, and probate inventories, many of them previously unknown or unused, to analyze the country's social hierarchy, the division of labor, the distribution of wealth, various forms of private and communal land tenure, differentiation between cities and villages, household and family structure, and the elite before and after the rise of coffee.
Warnings to the Kings and Advice on Restoring Spain A Bilingual Edition (Nieves Romero-Díaz)
During a pivotal point in Spanish history, aristocrat María de Guevara (?–1683) produced two extraordinary essays that appealed for strong leadership, protested political corruption, and demanded the inclusion of women in the court’s decision making. “Treaty” gave Philip IV practical suggestions for fighting the war against Portugal and “Disenchantments” counseled the king-to-be, Charles II, on strategies to raise the country’s status in Europe. This annotated bilingual edition, featuring Nieves Romero-Díaz’s adroit translation, reproduces Guevara’s polemics for the first time. The collection also includes examples of Guevara’s shorter writings that exemplify her ability to speak on matters of state, network with dignitaries, and govern family affairs. Witty, ironic, and rhetorically sophisticated, Guevara’s essays provide a fresh perspective on the possibilities for women in the public sphere in seventeenth-century Spain.
Nueva Nobleza, nueva novella: reescribiendo la cultura urbana del barroco (Nieves Romero-Díaz)
En la introducción del presente libro, Nieves Romero-Díaz señala el descuido al que ha sido sujeta la novela corta del siglo XVII por parte de los estudiosos del Siglo de Oro español. Como consecuencia, dice la autora, su proyecto busca examinar este género literario como un fenómeno social que, en la línea de las propuestas de George Mariscal, tanto afecta la cultura de la época como se ve influido por ella (14). El trabajo de Romero-Díaz no explora particularmente lo primero; sin embargo, esto no parece deberse necesariamente a una deficiencia de su análisis, sino a una decisión de enfoque. Lo que sí es un logro de su estudio es cómo muestra literariamente el proceso de transformación y/o negociación por el cual pasa la nobleza de la época con respecto a su propia autorregulación y su percepción de sí misma. Por medio de un análisis cuidadoso de algunas de las obras de los novelistas Gonzalo de Céspedes y Meneses, María de Zayas, Alonso de Castillo y Solórzano y Mariana de Carvajal, explora cómo reacciona la nobleza, ya sea de forma voluntaria u obligatoria vis à vis el incremento del poder económico de otros grupos sociales que no necesariamente podían considerarse como nobles—al menos no en el sentido tradicional de la definición tal y como es planteada en los trabajos de Maravall, entre otros. En este sentido, la obra de Romero-Díaz no sólo resulta refrescante sino necesaria.
Place, Language and Identity in Afro-Costa Rican Literature (Dorothy Mosby)
In Place, Language, and Identity in Afro-Costa Rican Literature, Dorothy E. Mosby investigates contemporary black writing from Costa Rica and argues that it reveals the story of a people formed by multiple migrations and cultural transformations. Afro–Costa Rican writers from different historical periods express their relation to place, language, and identity as a “process,” a transformation partly due to sociohistorical circumstances and partly in reaction against the national myths of whiteness in the dominant Hispanic culture. Black writers in Costa Rica have used creative writing as a means to express this change in self-identity—as West Indians, as Costa Ricans, as “Latinos,” and as a contentious union of all these cultural identifications—as well as to combat myths and extrinsic definitions of their culture.
Coffee, Society and Power in Latin America (Lowell Gudmundson with William Roseberry and Mario Samper Kutschbach)
In Coffee, Society, and Power in Latin America, a distinguished international group of historians, anthropologists, and sociologists examine the production, processing, and marketing of this important commodity. Using coffee as a common denominator and focusing on landholding patterns, labor mobilization, class structure, political power, and political ideologies, the authors examine how Latin American countries of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries responded to the growing global demand for coffee. This unique volume offers an integrated comparative study of class formation in the coffee zones of Latin America as they were incorporated into the world economy. It offers a new theoretical and methodological approach to comparative historical analysis and will serve as a critique and counter to those who stress the homogenizing tendencies of export agriculture.
Blacks and Blackness in Central America : Between Race and Place (Lowell Gudmunson & Justin Wolfe)
Many of the earliest Africans to arrive in the Americas came to Central America with Spanish colonists in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, and people of African descent constituted the majority of nonindigenous populations in the region long thereafter. Yet in the development of national identities and historical consciousness, Central American nations have often countenanced widespread practices of social, political, and regional exclusion of blacks. The postcolonial development of mestizo or mixed-race ideologies of national identity have systematically downplayed African ancestry and social and political involvement in favor of Spanish and Indian heritage and contributions. The essays in this collection begin to recover the forgotten and downplayed histories of blacks in Central America, demonstrating the centrality of African Americans to the region’s history from the earliest colonial times to the present.
Destination Dictatorship: The Spectacle of Spain’s Tourist Boom and the Reinvention of Difference (Justin Crumbaugh) When the right-wing military dictatorship of Francisco Franco decided in 1959 to devalue the Spanish currency and liberalize the economy, the country's already steadily growing tourist industry suddenly ballooned to astounding proportions. Throughout the 1960s, glossy images of high-rise hotels, crowded beaches, and blondes in bikinis flooded public space in Spain as the Franco regime showcased its success. In Destination Dictatorship, Justin Crumbaugh argues that the spectacle of the tourist boom took on a sociopolitical life of its own, allowing the Franco regime to change in radical and profound ways, to symbolize those changes in a self-serving way, and to mobilize new reactionary social logics that might square with the structural and cultural transformations that came with economic liberalization. Crumbaugh's illuminating analysis of the representation of tourism in Spanish commercial cinema, newsreels, political essays, and other cultural products overturns dominant assumptions about both the local impact of tourism development and the Franco regime's final years.
Quince Duncan Writing Afro-Costa Rican and Caribbean Identity (Dorothy Mosby)
The grandson of Jamaican and Barbadian immigrants to Limón, Quince Duncan (b. 1940) incorporates personal memories into stories about first generation Afro–West Indian immigrants and their descendants in Costa Rica. Duncan’s novels, short stories, recompilations of oral literature, and essays intimately convey the challenges of Afro–West Indian contract laborers and the struggles of their descendants to be recognized as citizens of the nation they helped bring into modernity. Quince Duncan is a comprehensive study of the published short stories and novels of Costa Rica’s first novelist of African descent and one of the nation’s most esteemed contemporary writers. In Quince Duncan, Dorothy E. Mosby combines biographical information on Duncan with geographic and cultural context for the analysis of his works, along with plot summaries and thematic discussions particularly helpful to readers new to Duncan.
Cervantes and/on/in the New World (edited by Nieves Romero-Díaz with Julio Velez-Sainz) starts with an exploration of Cervantes’ notion of the New World to deal with the reception of Cervantes’ works in the Americas and individual reconstructions of his works. It moves from theatrical and filmic adaptions of Cervantes’ life to the trials and tribulations of teaching and editing Don Quijote. The book compiles articles written in Spanish and English, essays in a colloquial and in a very formal fashion, which use contemporary theoretical and hermeneutic approaches as well as classical philological work. This work expands on a symposium sponsored by Mount Holyoke College and the University of Massachusetts in celebration of Cervantes 400th anniversary in October 2005.
Critical Ethnic Studies: A Reader (Eds. David Manuel Hernández, Nada Elia, Jodi Kim, Shana L. Redmond, Dylan Rodriguez, Sarita Echavez)
Building on the intellectual and political momentum that established the Critical Ethnic Studies Association, this Reader inaugurates a radical response to the appropriations of liberal multiculturalism while building on the possibilities enlivened by the historical work of Ethnic Studies. It does not attempt to circumscribe the boundaries of Critical Ethnic Studies; rather, it offers a space to promote open dialogue, discussion, and debate regarding the field's expansive, politically complex, and intellectually rich concerns. Covering a wide range of topics, from multiculturalism, the neoliberal university, and the exploitation of bodies, to empire, the militarized security state, and decolonialism, these twenty-five essays call attention to the urgency of articulating a Critical Ethnic Studies for the twenty-first century.
Feliciana Enríquez de Guzmán, Ana Caro Mállen, and Sor Marcela de San Félix: Women Playwrights of Early Modern Spain. (Edited by Nieves Romero-Díaz and Lisa Vollendorf). Translated and annotated by Harley Erdman). The Other Voice in Early Modern Europe-The Toronto Series, Vol. 49.
This volume presents ten plays by three leading women playwrights of Spain’s Golden Age. Included are four bawdy and outrageous comic interludes; a full-length comedy involving sorcery, chivalry, and dramatic stage effects; and five short religious plays satirizing daily life in the convent. A critical introduction to the volume positions these women and their works in the world of seventeenth-century Spain.