Each student has to write a research paper on FDI and development
in a specific country.
Focus of the paper: The literature makes amply clear that FDI may serve
as an engine of development, as a handmaiden for development, or as an obstacle
to development. Which role has FDI played in the development of the country
you are studying? How central has it been in the country’s development
strategy? Which development benefits did FDI generate? Which ones were missing?
What policies has the government adopted to attract FDI and to maximize the
likelihood that the potential benefits from FDI will actually materialize?
Are there particular external conditions that have facilitated or hindered
the realization of an FDI-development nexus?
These are the key issues your paper will explore.
Sources: The most common and comprehensive data base for developing
countries is the World Development Indicators Online, which is available
on the MHC
UNCTAD has the most comprehensive data base on FDI, also available on-line.
Check the resource page on our course page for other sources for data
and analyses. Check EconLit to see which articles/books on FDI/development
in your country are available.
Structure of the paper: Your paper needs to be structured clearly, with
an introduction, a main body, and a concluding section. The paper needs a
succinct introduction where you state the main argument(s) that your will
present. It is a summary of your paper that guides the reader as to your
main point(s) and the structure that will follow.
The main body starts with a theoretical part, which lays out the conceptual
issues, major points of controversy, and findings in the literature, in other
words a mini literature review. That part is due on March 14th (a 4 page
paper). Since the theoretical part focuses on those issues that are relevant
to the argument of your paper, it provides a structure for the empirical
analysis that follows.
In a literature review/theoretical framework, you need to lay out the main
issues in the analysis of the FDI-development nexus: where do economists
agree? Where do they disagree? What does the empirical evidence say? Based
on everything we have read, you structure the argument drawing in the different
authors where appropriate. You do NOT discuss one author after the other.
The concluding section summarizes your findings, comments on the implications
of your findings for our understanding of the impact of globalization on
the development prospects of developing countries, suggests policy implications
(if there are any), and identifies areas for further research.
Presentation of the arguments:
a) You need to be nuanced in your statements. The readings and discussions
in the seminar show that many points are contested and that there is often
evidence on both sides of an argument. That does not mean that every point
of view is equally valid, after all coherence of argument and strength
of evidence matter! But it does mean that you need to acknowledge complexity
of argument. E.g.: “FDI is an important driver behind economic development.” is
a sentence that belies the contested nature of the statement. It would
be more insightful to say “FDI can be an important driver behind
b) Make good use of subtitles and sub-subtitles. They help you structure
c) I encourage you to use ‘active voice’ as much as possible.
Economists sometimes tend to shy away from active voice and rely nearly exclusively
on passive voice. It makes for really dull writing and reading. Don’t
say, for example, “it has been argued that…..” Instead,
say : “Amsden and Rodrik argue that ….”
d) Seek out ‘powerful’ verbs: use ‘argue,’ ‘claim’, ‘assert’,
State’ and ‘say’ don’t convey the same power…
e) Make judicious use of paragraphs. A new point, especially when you elaborate
on it, normally warrants a new paragraph. You do not want to have paragraphs
that run on for a whole page. A reminder: a paragraph needs to have at least
two sentences. Make sure that your sentences do not run on and on and on.
Karl Marx and James Joyce styles are not appropriate here.
Citations and proper references of sources:
a) Any use of sources has to be identified properly. Verbatim excerpts
from other writings have to be identified as quotations with reference;
paraphrasing another author requires proper source identification. Any
violation of these rules is plagiarism and will result in zero points
for the paper and presentation, and may result in a failing grade for
the whole course.
If you use a sentence or substantial sentence fragments from a written
source verbatim, you have to indicate that by using quotation marks and
giving the exact source, including page number. When you paraphrase an
argument, you still need to give the reference (e.g. Rodrik 1994), but
you do not need the quotation marks.
There can be a grey line as to whether something is paraphrasing or not,
but as a rule, paraphrasing means that you alter the use of words significantly.
Changing one word in an otherwise ‘intact verbatim’ sentence
does definitely not qualify as paraphrasing.
b) Be sparing in your use of quotations. You have read enough to be more
assertive about a point yourself. Most of the times, you do not need
to rely upon somebody else to make that point for you. Use your own words
c) You need make extensive use of journal articles and books for your
research. The evidence will be citations in the text and the bibliography.
You need a commonly-used style for the bibliography. It is not enough
to have all the pieces of information there (although that is critical);
there are bibliographic conventions that you need to follow. You can
pick any of the articles we have read and follow their example as to
how to cite books, articles, webpages, etc…. I find the author/date/page
number convention the most convenient for writer and reader. For example: “Rodrik
(2006) argues….” Rather than ‘In his article “…..article
title …… “Rodrik argues …..
d) If you refer to a specific argument, you need to provide the page
number. For example: Paus and Gallagher (2006, 35) claim that …..
e) You can only use quotation marks for citations from written works,
not from talks or lecture notes.
Style and grammar:
a) Never split an infinitive! E.g. it’s is grammatically wrong
to say: ‘To better assess the impact of….” Instead,
it should read: “To assess the impact of ….better…” or
maybe “to reach a better assessment of ….”
b) When you use a footnote, put the footnote at the end of the sentence,
and after the period, and not in the middle of the sentence.
c) Make sure your paper has page numbers.
d) Make sure that referents like ‘this’ are always clearly
identified. E.g. : ‘This demonstrates that ……” Often
it’s not clear what ‘this’ refers to….
e) The paper needs to be typed (double-spaced). It has to include a bibliography
with an accepted bibliographical style. All tables and figures need to
be referenced properly.
Summary of deadlines for the research paper:
March 14th, 2008: 4 page literature review.
March 28, 2008: 1 page outline of the main arguments of your paper
+ 1 page annotated bibliography
During the week before your presentation:
Meet with SAW mentor for a practice presentation (video-taped). Your
discussant needs at least THREE days to read the paper, formulate a response
and have a practice session (herself) with the SAW mentor. Your best
first draft is due to the discussant and me by Friday evening 11 pm
of the week before your in-class presentation.
The final paper is due at the beginning of class of the week after your