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Chronology

1,000 BCE

 

Iron & Bronze Ages in Europe, first trade takes place in Middle East.

500 BCE

 

Beginning of Roman Empire.

0 CE

 

Height of Roman Empire, North & South India linked, Han Dynasty further development in Mexico.

325 CE

 

Chandragupta Maurya combines the expansive powers of world religion, trade economy, & imperial arms for the first time.

500

 

Decline of Roman Empire. Decline of early civilizations -- beginning of Middle or Dark Ages. Can be argued that this is the beginning of globalization.

960-1279

 

The Song Dynasty in China & contemporary regimes in India which produced the economic output, financial instruments, and technologies for the medieval world economy that linked Europe & China by land & sea across the Eurasia and Indian Ocean.

1000

 

Vikings.

1100

 

The Rise of Genghis Khan & the integration of overland routes across Eurasia.

1300

 

Creation of the Ottoman Empire, spanning Europe, N. Africa, & Middle East. Connected politically overland with Safavids & dynasties in Central Asia & India -- creating the great imperial arch of integration that spawned a huge expansion of trade; Marco Polo wrote about travels for a limited world view.

1335-1410

 

Life of Medieval merchant, Francesco Datini, of Prato, Italy. Kept meticulous records such as bills and letters to wife while away trading. Created the Holding Co. with subsidiaries Algeria to London & Alexandria to Lisbon.

1488

 

Henry the Navigator sailed around Africa to try to reach India.

1492-1498

 

Columbus & da Gama travel west & east to the Indies, inaugurating an age of European sea borne empires.

1497

 

John Cabbot sailed around the entire world.

1650

 

Expansion of slave trade, giving birth to integrated economic/industrial systems across the ocean.

1776/1789

 

US & French Revolutions. Nationalist governments, new imperial expansion.

1885

 

Treaty of Berlin marks a diplomatic watershed in the age of modern imperial expansion by European & American overseas empires.

1913

 

Federal Reserve Act creates first central bank in America.

1914-1918

 

World War I.

1918

 

Wilson's 14 Points speech, League of Nations covenant.

1919

 

Treaty of Versailles.

1920

 

League of Nations established in Geneva Switzerland, rejected by U.S. Senate.

1929

 

Stock Market Crash, sets stage for world wide depression, international response.

1930

 

Bank of International Settlements created in Basil Switzerland.

1933

 

Roosevelt begins New Deal.

1939-1945

 

World War II.

1944

 

Bretton Woods agreements creating the World Bank & the International Monetary Fund (IMF).

1945

 

Yalta Conference, UN Charter ratified by Senate.

1946

 

Winston Churchill's "Iron Curtain" speech on containment. Beginning of Cold War era of Soviet Union & United States. Capitalism vs. Communism.

1947

 

The Truman Doctrine sets ideological containment policies for US.

1948

 

The Marshall Plan (Economic Cooperation Act) for European reconstruction.

1950-1953

 

Korean War.

1951

 

Germany & France create European Coal & Iron Community.

1957

 

European Economic Community (EEC) created via the Treaty of Rome which included Germany, France, Italy, the Netherlands, Belgium, & Luxembourg.

1958

 

European Free Trade Association (EFTA) created.

1962

 

Cuban Missile Crisis.

1964-1975

 

Vietnam War.

1967

 

EEC integrated together with the European Coal and Steel Community to form one European Community.

1970

 

First earth day celebrated, world conference on peace & religion in Kyoto Japan; Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) created.

1971

 

U.S. ended gold standard, devalued dollar, currency floats, determined by market.

1973

 

OPEC oil crisis. Oil shortage led to massive inflow of funds to OPEC economies, aggressive bank lending policies, & emergence of international credit economies; UK, Denmark, & Ireland joined EC.

1975

 

U.S. Apollo & Soviet Sojuz link in space.

1979

 

European Monetary system created to keep exchange rates stable.

1981

 

Greece became full member of the EC, followed by Portugal & Spain in 1986; PC launched by IBM.

1987

 

World Stock Market crash; Single European Act called for further economic & political integration.

1988

 

Transatlantic optical fiber telephone cable enters service.

1989-1991

 

Fall of Soviet Union.

1992

 

Maastricht Treaty signed, creating European Union (EU), call for a completion of a single market with no economic barriers between countries; NAFTA Trade Agreement signed by U.S., Canada, & Mexico.

1995

 

General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) Rounds, leading to the World Trade Organization (WTO); Finland, Austria, & Sweden joined the EU bringing the number of members to 15. Eleven of the 15 nations were part of Euroland.

1997

 

Asian Crisis; Kyoto Protocols.

Jan, 1999

 

Introduction of the Euro currency.