The Relationship of Exercise and
Fitness on Visuall
Recall of Text
by Amanda Currier, Kristen Van de Geer,
and Kristin Lee
The relationships between fitness level
and exercise condition with visual recall of text, measured by the difference
in test score between pre-test and posttest, were examined. We used a 2
(low fitness or high fitness) x 2 (exercise or no exercise) independent
groups design. Thirty-four female Mount Holyoke College students served.
Participants in the high fitness and low fitness groups were randomly assigned
to the exercise (Tae Bo workout) and no exercise conditions (viewed Tae
Bo video). Results indicate that those subjects in the high fitness group
had a significantly greater difference in test score than those subjects
in the low fitness group. According to our findings, a regular exercise
program may improve test scores more than exercising right before a test.
To find the relationship of exercise to
visual recall of text in people of high fitness versus people of low fitness
Hogervorst, Riedel, Jeukendrup, and
Subjects: 15 healthy, male triathletes, with high levels of fitness
Subjects performed cognitive and psychomotor tasks before and after
Results: Exercise had a positive effect on performance in cognitive
and psychomotor tests.
Subjects: 50 male members of an Australian Rules football club
Subjects performed arithmetic tests before and after exercise (bench
Results: Exercise had no effect on performance in arithmetic tests
Adam, Teeken, Ypelaar, Verstappen and Paas
Subjects: 11 males and 9 females
Performed a sustained information transfer task and a short-term memory
Results: Exercise had no effect on the short-term memory task
Results: Exercise had a positive effect on the sustained information
Tomporowski, Ellis, and Stephens
Subjects: 24 college students
Performed memory tests after exercise
Results: Exercise had no effect on memory tests
There will a more significant improvement
in test scores between pre-test scores and posttest scores in those subjects
who participate in aerobic exercise than in those subjects who do not participate
in any exercise.
Those subjects who are physically fit
prior to the experiment will have significantly higher test scores than
those subjects who have a lower fitness level.
Those subjects that participate in aerobic
exercise and who are physically fit will show the most significant improvement
between pre-test scores and posttest scores in comparison to the other
Thirty-four Mount Holyoke College students
participated in our experiment.
Subjects were separated into four different
Participants were randomly assigned to
either the exercise group or the non-exercise group.
Subjects filled out the fitness questionnaire
Subjects were placed in either the high
fitness or the low fitness group by the researchers.
Baseline heart rate and target heart rates
were determined and recorded.
View Tae Bo Basic video
Obtain final heart rate
Two word lists
Tae Bo Basic video
There was a significant main effect
for fitness level.
There was no significant main effect for
Subjects in the high fitness group had
a significantly higher difference in test score from pre-test to posttest
(M=2.00) than those subjects in the low fitness group (M=0.14).
There was no significant interaction effect
between fitness level and exercise condition.
The difference in test score between pre-test
and posttest of those individuals in the exercise condition (M=1.19)
did not differ significantly from the subjects in the no exercise condition
There was no significant difference in
test score differences from pre-test to posttest between those subjects
with a high fitness level in the exercise condition (M=2.20), subjects
with a low fitness level in the exercise condition (M=0.50), subjects
with a high fitness level in the no exercise group (M=1.80) and
those subjects with a low fitness level in the no exercise group (M=0.63).
A graph of the results is shown in
1) The above results do not support our hypothesis that
exercise will improve recall of visual text.
2) the above results do support our hypothesis that fitness
level will have a relationship to recall of visual text.
3) the results do not support our interaction hypothesis
that people of high fitness levels, who exercise, will have a higher number
of words recalled from pre-test to posttest.
This data shows a relationship between fitness level and
recall of visual text. This relationship shows that working out regularly
may improve memory.
Suggestions for further research
use a different type of exercise/longer period of exercise
administer different/more tests
create a more specific questionnaire
plan a longitudinal study (to control fitness levels)
increase the number of subjects per group