Abstract

A mixed group ANOVA was used to determine if the degree of focus (focus or non-focus), the between-groups variable, and the degree of salience (high or low), the within-subjects variable, had a significant effect on the number of changes detected between the original and the altered images. There was a significant main effect for the degree of salience, with significantly more changes detected among high salience objects (M=2.60) than among low salience objects (M=1.95), F(1, 98)=23.27, MSE=0.91, p<.05 (Figure 1). There was no significant main effect between the number of changes detected in the focus group (M=2.19) and the non-focus group (M=2.36), F(1, 98)=0.79, MSE=1.84, p>.05. There was a significant interaction between the degree of salience and focus, F(1,98)=9.26, MSE=0.91, p<.05. Individuals in the focus group detected significantly fewer low salience objects (M=1.66) than high salience objects (M=2.72). The number of low salience objects detected by the focus group (M=1.66) was also significantly smaller than either the number of low salience objects (M=2.24) or the number of high salience objects (M=2.48) detected in the non-focus group.



Hypothesis

It was hypothesized that if the observer focused on a particular area of the image, they would detect more changes in the area of focus rather than the changes that occurred in the non-focused area of the image. It was also hypothesized that the salience of the change would affect. It was also expected that the more salient objects would have been noticed more than the less salient objects.

Introduction
Change detection, also known as attention blindness, is the failure to see unattended items. Change blindness, on the other hand, is when observers fail to notice unattended changes. The two are very similar, but change blindness focuses more on the failure to see overall change while change detection is the inability to detect certain objects or items. The goal of this study was to illustrate that if the observer is focused on a particular area of the image, they would detect more changes in the area of focus rather than the changes that occur in the non-focused area of the image. In addition, the study explored whether the degree of salience had an effect on change detection.

Our first independent variable was the degree of focus, whether or not the subject was told to focus on an object in a scene. The second independent variable was the degree of salience, with objects categorized as high salience or low salience. Our dependent measure was the number of correct changes detected.

Method

Participants:

Materials: Procedure:
Results

A mixed group ANOVA was used to determine if the degree of focus (focus or non-focus), the between-groups variable, and the degree of salience (high or low), the within-subjects variable, had a significant effect on the number of changes detected between the original and the altered images. There was a significant main effect for the degree of salience, with significantly more changes detected among high salience objects (M=2.60) than among low salience objects (M=1.95), F(1, 98)=23.27, MSE=0.91, p<.05 (Figure 1). There was no significant main effect between the number of changes detected in the focus group (M=2.19) and the non-focus group (M=2.36), F(1, 98)=0.79, MSE=1.84, p>.05. There was a significant interaction between the degree of salience and focus, F(1,98)=9.26, MSE=0.91, p<.05. Individuals in the focus group detected significantly fewer low salience objects (M=1.66) than high salience objects (M=2.72). The number of low salience objects detected by the focus group (M=1.66) was also significantly smaller than either the number of low salience objects (M=2.24) or the number of high salience objects (M=2.48) detected in the non-focus group.

Discussion

The hypothesis was partially supported. The subjects in the non-focus group did not notice significantly more changes than those in the focus group. However, objects with a higher degree of salience were detected significantly more than those with low salience. In addition, subjects in the focus group tended to notice fewer low salience objects than high salience objects.

These results conflict with Macrae et al findings which suggest that changes cannot be detected outside of the focus area. On the other hand, a study done by Fox supports our findings concerning the interaction between the high degree of salience and focusing attention on an object.

Questionnaire

Please note. There are no right or wrong answers. You may take as much time as you desire to complete this questionnaire.

Did you notice any changes between the two scenes (Please circle your response)?

Yes No

If so, please use the space below to list all changes that you noticed:



 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

I followed the bolded directions on the opposite side of the page:

1 2 3 4 5

not somewhat completely

at all