Astronomy 23/223 Homework:

Venus' Atmosphere

 1. Pictorally represent the layers of Venus' atmosphere. Either with a graph, chart, or diagram include the following information for each layer: temperature, altitude, mass density, and composition. 2. The Chemistry and Structure. (a) Where does Venus' Atmosphere come from? How has it developed so much carbon dioxide and what's the result? As much as possible, discuss the chemical interactions that resulted in Venus' greenhouse effect. see pages 91-92 of Consolmagno and Schaefer (b) At the top of the cloud cover of Venus the temperature is 240 K while at the surface the temperature is closer to 750K. The relationship between pressure and temperature can be writen as follows: If the pressure above the clouds is 100mbar and the heat capacity of carbon dioxide is about 50 K or 10 cal/(mol K ) (making the exponent C/R about 5), what's the pressure on the surface? (c) To find the distance between the surface and the top of the clouds, we can use the equation for the abiabatic lapse rate which is. If the heat capacity is and g on Venus is 887 cm/s2, calculate the temperature gradient. This is the amount that the temperature changes for each unit of distance. Using that information, now calculate the distance between the surface and top of the clouds. (d) Despite this huge temperature change in through the height of the atmosphere, the temperature at the poles is very similar to that of the equator. Why? The temperatures are the same because the cloud cover is the same all over the planet. 3. Using your book and the internet, find out how scientist were able to get information about Venus despite its atmosphere. Find out about two techniques that were used to get information about Venus' surface and tell me how they worked, when they were used, and what new information was learned from them.

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