Reserve List

 Modern Architecture Art 243/Fall 2005



I. Looking Backward or Forward into the Future The Paris and Chicago World Fairs

The Question of Style in the Nineteenth Century
T. Cole, The Architect's Dream (Toledo, OH): 1840
K.F. Schinkel, Berlin, Altes Museum: 1824-28
A.W.N. Pugin, Contrasts: 1836
G.G. Scott, London, St. Pancras Station: 1868-74
C. Garnier, Paris, Opéra: 1861

Paris, Centennial Exposition of 1889
Galerie des Machines
C.L.F. Dutert and V. Contamin, engineers
Crystal Palace, London Exposition, 1851
Joseph Paxton

Eiffel Tower: built 1887-1889
preliminary design by Maurice Koechlin: 1884
Gustave Eiffel
Garabit railroad viaduct (central France): 1879-84
Tower facts:
height: 300 meters (984 feet)
weight: 7300 tons
26 months to build

Structural Engineering
Brooklyn Bridge: 1869-1883

John A., Washington, and Emily Roebling
Note: There is an excellent film by Ken Burns on
the Brooklyn Bridge (available at Hampshire College)
1600 foot main span
towers 267 feet high above water, arches 119 feet high,
34 feet wide
tension--stretching or pulling of a material
compression--pushing of a material

World's Fairs: Chicago 1893
Chicago Columbian Exposition: 1893

Daniel Burnham: architect-in-charge
Charles Atwood: Railroad terminal, Fine Arts Building
Richard Morris Hunt: Administration Building
Charles McKim (of McKim, Mead, and White): Agriculture Building
George Post: Manufacturing Building
Sophia G. Hayden Women's Building
Louis Sullivan: Transportation Building
Ho-o-Den: Japanese pavilion
McKim, Mead, and White
New York, Columbia University: begun 1893
New York, Pennsylvania Station: 1906-1910
Beaux-Arts: refers to the educational curriculum taught in fine arts academies in Europe. In architecture, historical styles are models for design, classical (Greece, Rome, Renaissance) held in highest esteem, planning based on rules of symmetry, balance, regularity

II. Rebirth and Nature: Art Nouveau
Art Nouveau: Towards an Architecture of Empathy

Paris, Exposition of 1900
Pavillon Bing
Loïe Fuller Theater (designed by H. Sauvage)
"Woman-flower, woman-bird, woman butterfly, the themes of metamorphosis which characterized the work in precious metals, the jewelry and glass of Art Nouveau were all found in the sinuous dancing of Loïe Fuller, evocator of a 'vegetation of fantasy and impassioned love, which brings together, in one symbol, nature and being, which illumines the frail substance of a flower with a woman's smile.'"


Hector Guimard (1867-1942)
Paris, Métro Stations: ca. 1900-1905
cf. Paris, Les Halles (market buildings): 1850s
(V. Baltard)
Paris, Castel Béranger: 1894-1898
Paris, Villa Flore: 1909

Victor Horta (1861-1947)
Brussels, Tassel House: 1892-1893
art of A. Beardsley, e.g. Salome, 1894
Brussels, van Eetveld House: 1895-98
cp. with Rococo interior (Paris, 18th century)
Brussels, Maison du Peuple: 1897-1898
cf. Paris, Bibliothèque Ste-Geneviève: 1843-50
(H. Labrouste)
cf. E.E. Viollet-le-Duc, Concert hall project: 1864
structural rationalism


Antoni Gaudi (1852-1926)
Barcelona, La Sagrada Familia: begun 1883
Barcelona, Guell Park: 1900-1914
Barcelona, Casa Batllò: 1905-1907
Barcelona, Casa Milà: 1905-1907
cf. Curtis, ch.4, pp. 76-79
reinforced concrete



Otto Wagner (1841-1918)
Vienna, "Majolica House: 1897-1898
Vienna, Postal Savings Bank: 1904-1906
"horizontal lines such as were prevalent in antiquity...great simplicity and an energetic exhibition of construction and materials" (Wagner from an 1894 lecture)

Joseph Maria Olbrich (1867-1908)
Vienna, Secession Building: 1897-1898
Ver Sacrum (The Sacred Spring), publication of Secessionist movement
Darmstadt, Germany, Exhibition Hall and "Wedding Tower:"

Joseph Hoffmann (1870-1956)
Brussels, Palais Stoclet: 1905-1910
cp. C.R. Mackintosh, Design for House of an Art Lover: 1902
Piet Mondrian, Composition no 6: 1914
mosaic murals in dining room by Gustav Klimt

Adolf Loos (1870-1933)
Ornament und Verbrechen (Ornament and Crime): 1908
Vienna, Steiner House: 1910

III. The Machine in the Service of Art
The Arts and Crafts Movement

Frank Lloyd Wright (1867-1959)
The Early Years

Oak Park, IL, Wright House: 1893
compare: Topsfield, MA, Parson Capen House: 1683
Newport, RI, Watts Sherman House: 1874
H.H. Richardson and S. White
"Hopdene," Surrey, England by R.N. Shaw: 1873
"Shingle Style"

River Forest, IL, Winslow House: 1893
compare: Chicago, Glessner House: 1886
H.H. Richardson
Chicago, Charnley House: 1890-91
Louis Sullivan assisted by F.L. Wright


IV. The First Machine Age

Fillipo Tomaso Marinetti, Manifesto, published in Le Figaro, 20 February 1909
Giacomo Balla, Dynamism of a Dog on a Leash, 1912
Umberto Boccioni
States of Mind: Farewells: 1911
Development of a Bottle in Space, 1914

Antonio Sant-Elia (1880-1916)
Citta Nuova: 1912-14
airplane station, central station, airship hangar, stepped high-rise apartments, power plant
Orly Airship hangars: 1916-1923
Eugène Freyssinet
Messagio (architectural manifesto): 1914

founded 1907, Hermann Muthesius

Peter Behrens (1868-1940)
Berlin, AEG Turbine Factory: 1908-1909
compare Behrens house, Darmstadt: 1901
compare Hans Poelzig (1869-1936)
Luban, Poland, Chemical Factory: 1911

Walter Gropius (1883-1969) and Adolf Meyer
Alfeld, Germany, Fagus Shoe Factory: 1911
K.F. Schinkel, Berlin, Altes Museum: 1823-30

Cologne, Germany: Werkbund Exhibition: 1914
Werkbund Factory--Gropius and Meyer
F.L. Wright, Mason City, IA, National Bank Building and Hotel: 1909
Werkbund Exhibition Theater
Henri van de Velde (1863-1957)
"architecture of empathy"
Glass Pavilion
Bruno Taut (1880-1938)
cf. Leipzig, Steel Pavilion: 1913
Paul Scheerbart, Glasarchitektur, 1914

New Communities

Tony Garnier (1869-1948)
La Cité Industrielle: 1904-17

Michel de Klerk (1884-1923)
Amsterdam, Eigen Haard Housing project: 1915-19
Zaanstraat Post Office: 1917
cf. Seaside, FL: 1982ff. (Duany and Plater-Zyberk)
South Hadley, Village Commons (G. Gund): 1988

Space, Time & Architecture: De Stijl: 1917-1931
Wendingen, 1917-31
De Stijl, 1918-32
publication of "Amsterdam School"

H.P. Berlage, Amsterdam, Exchange (Beurs): 1897-1904
cf. F.L. Wright, Buffalo, NY, Larkin Building: 1904

J.J.P. Oud (1890-1963)
Hook of Holland, Workers' Housing project: 1924-27

Robert van't Hoff
Utrecht, Netherlands, Huis ter Heide: 1916
cf. F.L. Wright, Oak Park, IL, Thomas Gale House: 1909

Gerrit Rietveld (1884-1964)
Utrecht, Netherlands, Schroeder House: 1924
Chair: 1917

Theo van Doesburg (1883-1931)
recall paintings of Piet Mondrian: Composition in a Square: 1922
Space-Time Construction: 1923
Michael Graves, Princeton, NJ, Benacerraf House: 1969

Architecture of the Russian Revolution

V. The Radical 1920s

Towards a New Architecture: Le Corbusier (Charles-Edouard Jeanneret): 1887-1965
The early years

La Chaux-de-Fonds, Switzerland
Villa Stotzer: 1908
Villa Schwob: 1916
Dom-Ino frame: 1914
Citrohan house project: 1922
recall T. Garnier. Cité Industrielle: 1901-1914

Vers une architecture (Toward a New Architecture): 1923
Garches, Villa Stein
: 1927
"five points of architecture"
strip windows
roof garden
free plan
free façade

Poissy, Villa Savoie: 1929-1931
"promenade architecturale"
Paris, Cité Universitaire, Swiss Pavilion: 1930-31
Paris, Pavillon de l'Esprit Nouveau (1925 Exposition)
Plan for City of 3 Million:1922

Architecture of the Russian Revolution

Vladimir Tatlin
Monument to the Third international: 1919-20
El Lissitsky
Project for Orator's platform: 1920
Cloud Hangar Projects: 1924-25
(with Mart Stam)
Proun paintings: 1920s
Vesnin Brothers
Pravda Building project: 1923
Naum Gabo, Model for a Fountain: 1923;
Airport model: 1924-25
Kasimir Malevich, Suprematist Composition: 1918
Liubov Popova, clothing designs: 1923; stage designs: 1922

Konstantin Melnikov
Russian Pavilion, Paris Exhibition: 1925

...And its Contemporary Impact

Peter Eisenman,
Columbus OH, Wexner Center, Ohio State University: 1985-90
Daniel Libeskind
Berlin City Edge project: 1987
Zaha Hadid
Hong Kong, Project for Peak Club: 1982-83
Berlin Housing Project: 1985
Bernard Tschumi
Paris, Parc de la Villette: 1982-88
"les événements de '68"

The Bauhaus and the Modern Utopia

Formed in 1919 as an union of School of Arts and Crafts and Academy of Arts
1st headquarters in Weimar: Walter Gropius, director
Johannes Itten, foundations course teacher: 1919-22
Laszlo Moholy-Nagy
Marianne Brandt, designer

Ludwig Mies van der Rohe (1886-1969)
Skyscraper projects: 1920-21
cf. Bruno Taut, Alpine Architecture

Erich Mendelsohn (1887-1953)
Building projects, sketches: 1914
Berlin, Universum Cinema: 1926-28
Breslau, Petersdorff Dept. Store: 1926-27
Potsdam, Einstein Tower: 1920-24

Walter Gropius (1883-1969)
Dessau, Bauhaus: 1925-26
J. Brinckmann, L.C. van der Vlugt, Mart Stam
Rotterdam, Van Nelle Factory: 1927-29
"New Objectivity"

Stuttgart, Weissenhofsiedlung: 1927
houses by Behrens, Gropius, Le Corbusier, Oud, Mies, Scharoun, Stam
"The International Style"
1932 exhibition at Museum of Modern Art by
Philip Johnson and Henry-Russell Hitchcock

Mies van der Rohe
Barcelona, German Pavilion: 1929
Design for brick country house: 1922

VI: Meanwhile in America: the Skyscraper

New York

Houghwout Building (J.P. Gaynor): 1857
Tribune Building (R.M. Hunt): 1873
Woolworth Building (Cass Gilbert): 1913


Leiter Building (William LeBaron Jenney): 1879
Fair Store (W. L.Jenney): 1890-1891
steel frame
Marshall Field Warehouse (H.H. Richardson): 1885-1887

Louis Sullivan (1856-1924)

Chicago, Auditorium: 1886-1889
Chicago, Carson, Pirie, Scott Store: 1899-1904
cf. Helmut Jahn, Chicago, Xerox Center: 1980-82
St. Louis, Wainwright Building: 1890-1891
Buffalo, Guaranty (Prudential) Building: 1894-1895

Burnham and Root

Chicago, Monadnock Building: 1889-1891
Chicago, Reliance Building: 1895

Chicago Tribune Competition: 1922

entries by Walter Gropius, Adolf Loos, Daniel Burnham,
3rd prize: Holabird and Roche
2nd prize: Eliel Saarinen
1st prize: Raymond Hood and J.M. Howells, built 1922-1924

The Tall Building in the 20s and 30s

Raymond Hood(1881-1934)
New York, McGraw-Hill Building: 1929-1930

William Van Alen
New York, Chrysler Building: 1928-1930
Hugh Ferriss: skyscraper projects: 1920s

Shreve, Lamb, and Harmon
New York, Empire State Building: 1929-1931

Philadelphia, PSFS Building: 1932
George Howe and William Lescaze
recall: Gropius, Chicago Tribune project
Pittsburgh, Alcoa Building: completed 1955
Harrison and Abramovitz

New York, Rockefeller Center; 1931-1940
(Hood, Reinhard, Hofmeister, et al)
recall Le Corbusier, City fore 3 Million

Tall Buildings after 1945

Mies van der Rohe, New York, Seagram Building: 1954-58
Skidmore, Owings, and Merrill, Chicago, IL, John Hancock Building: 1968-70 (Fazlur Khan,engineer)
Michael Graves, Portland, OR, Portland Public Service Building: 1980-83

VII: Pushing the Boundaries of Modernism

Frank Lloyd Wright

Bear Run, PA, Fallingwater: 1936-1939
Racine, WI, Johnson Wax Research Tower: 1942-46
Bartlesville, OK, Price Tower: 1943-50
New York, Guggenheim Museum of Art: 1943-1959
cf. R. Meier, Atlanta, High Museum: 1980-83 and F. Gehry, Bilbao, Spain, Guggenheim Museum: 1997

Louis Kahn (1902-74)

New Haven, CT, Yale University Art Gallery: 1951-53
Philadelphia, PA, U. of Pennsylvania, Richards Medical Center: 1957-61
cf.San Gimignano, Italy
La Jolla, CA, Salk Institute: 1959-65


VIII. Beyond the Box: the Search for Meaning and Tradition
Le Corbusier: the late years

Marseilles, Unité d'Habitation: 1946-1952
Eveux, France, Notre-Dame de la Tourette: 1955
cf. Boston City Hall: 1962-68 (Kallmann, McKinnell,and Knowles)

Ronchamp, Notre-Dame du Haut: 1950-1954
cf. Stephen Holl, Helsinki, Finland: Kiasma Museum: 1992-98

Chandigarh, Punjab, India, Parliament Building: 1953-62

cf. Fatehpur Sikri, palace: late 16th century
Jaipur, Observatory: 1730s
Berlin, Altes Museum: 1824-28 (Karl Friedrich Schinkel)

IX. History's Revenge: Postmodernism

"Less is a Bore":Robert Venturi, Philip Johnson,

X. Reassurance or Doubt: Competing Visions

Tadao Ando (Japan): 1941
Tomamu, Hokkaido, Church on the Water: 1985-88
Hyogo, Water Temple: 1989-91
Paris, UNESCO Headquarters, Meditation Chapel: 1994-95

I.M. Pei
Boston, MA, John Hancock Building: 1969-73

Frank Gehry
Santa Monica, Gehry House: 1977
compare: Robert Venturi, Venturi House, Chestnut Hill, PA: 1962

Bilbao. Spain, Guggenheim Museum: opened 1997
(Molly Burnett)
compare: Richard Meier, Getty Center, Los Angeles, CA: 1998

Disney and Architeture
Disneyland, Anaheim, CA
cf. South Hadley, Village Commons: 1988-91, Graham Gund, architect

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