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  Counter-Revolution & Revolt 1792-1795.jpg - Map of Counter-Revolution and Revolt. In the French Revolution, as in others, the level of violence greatly increased after the relatively calm years of 1789-91. One the French declared war against Austria, Prussia, and Great Britain, the countries allied against France threatened the Revolution through invasion, while the need to field larger and larger armies intensified the need for tax revenues and recruits for the newly organized French army, effects of war that met with resentment and eventual armed resistance in regions of in the western regions of the Vendee and Brittany. Another source of division, resistance, and counter-revolution was the reorganization of the Church after the Civil Constitution of the Clergy of July 1790 was put in force. Thereafter, the Church was made a virtual department of the state and the clergy were obliged to swear an oath of loyalty to the Revolutionary government.  Putting loyalty to state ahead of God and the Pope caused seemed unconscionable to members of the clergy and some laymen.  Louis XVI opposed the subordination of the Church and the oath, as did many bishops and priests, of whom about half refused to take the oath and were eventually removed from the posts and made subject to arrest. Peasants in the Vendee, already resentful at the intensified recruitment of sons to serve in the army, rallied to the support of their priests. Then, after the execution of Louis XVI in January 1793, the Vendee region rose in armed revolt and marched under the white flag of the Bourbons. A royalist backed counter-revolution thus began in the spring of 1793. Some months later, Bordeaux, Nantes, Lyon, and other cities and towns rose in revolt against the expulsion of moderate deputies (called Girondins) in the Republic’s constituted government, the Convention. The expelled Girondins opposed the centralizing policies set out by the Jacobin party and the Jacobin controlled Committee of Public Safety.  Thus by July 1793, France faced counter-revolution internally and foreign war and invasion from without. These were the circumstances that led to the official adoption of Terror in September 1793 in attempt to crush internal revolts and rally the French to defeat Austria and Prussia. This is but one interpretation of the origins of the Terror, and scholars continue to debate its nature and effects.  
Vendee revolt
mass execution at Nantes
Robespierre
assassination Marat
temple of reason Notre Dame

Map of Counter-Revolution and Revolt. In the French Revolution, as in others, the level of violence greatly increased after the relatively calm years of 1789-91. One the French declared war against Austria, Prussia, and Great Britain, the countries allied against France threatened the Revolution through invasion, while the need to field larger and larger armies intensified the need for tax revenues and recruits for the newly organized French army, effects of war that met with resentment and eventual armed resistance in regions of in the western regions of the Vendee and Brittany. Another source of division, resistance, and counter-revolution was the reorganization of the Church after the Civil Constitution of the Clergy of July 1790 was put in force. Thereafter, the Church was made a virtual department of the state and the clergy were obliged to swear an oath of loyalty to the Revolutionary government. Putting loyalty to state ahead of God and the Pope caused seemed unconscionable to members of the clergy and some laymen. Louis XVI opposed the subordination of the Church and the oath, as did many bishops and priests, of whom about half refused to take the oath and were eventually removed from the posts and made subject to arrest. Peasants in the Vendee, already resentful at the intensified recruitment of sons to serve in the army, rallied to the support of their priests. Then, after the execution of Louis XVI in January 1793, the Vendee region rose in armed revolt and marched under the white flag of the Bourbons. A royalist backed counter-revolution thus began in the spring of 1793. Some months later, Bordeaux, Nantes, Lyon, and other cities and towns rose in revolt against the expulsion of moderate deputies (called Girondins) in the Republic’s constituted government, the Convention. The expelled Girondins opposed the centralizing policies set out by the Jacobin party and the Jacobin controlled Committee of Public Safety. Thus by July 1793, France faced counter-revolution internally and foreign war and invasion from without. These were the circumstances that led to the official adoption of Terror in September 1793 in attempt to crush internal revolts and rally the French to defeat Austria and Prussia. This is but one interpretation of the origins of the Terror, and scholars continue to debate its nature and effects. Download
Caption: Map of Counter-Revolution and Revolt. In the French Revolution, as in others, the level of violence greatly increased after the relatively calm years of 1789-91. One the French declared war against Austria, Prussia, and Great Britain, the countries allied against France threatened the Revolution through invasion, while the need to field larger and larger armies intensified the need for tax revenues and recruits for the newly organized French army, effects of war that met with resentment and eventual armed resistance in regions of in the western regions of the Vendee and Brittany. Another source of division, resistance, and counter-revolution was the reorganization of the Church after the Civil Constitution of the Clergy of July 1790 was put in force. Thereafter, the Church was made a virtual department of the state and the clergy were obliged to swear an oath of loyalty to the Revolutionary government. Putting loyalty to state ahead of God and the Pope caused seemed unconscionable to members of the clergy and some laymen. Louis XVI opposed the subordination of the Church and the oath, as did many bishops and priests, of whom about half refused to take the oath and were eventually removed from the posts and made subject to arrest. Peasants in the Vendee, already resentful at the intensified recruitment of sons to serve in the army, rallied to the support of their priests. Then, after the execution of Louis XVI in January 1793, the Vendee region rose in armed revolt and marched under the white flag of the Bourbons. A royalist backed counter-revolution thus began in the spring of 1793. Some months later, Bordeaux, Nantes, Lyon, and other cities and towns rose in revolt against the expulsion of moderate deputies (called Girondins) in the Republic’s constituted government, the Convention. The expelled Girondins opposed the centralizing policies set out by the Jacobin party and the Jacobin controlled Committee of Public Safety. Thus by July 1793, France faced counter-revolution internally and foreign war and invasion from without. These were the circumstances that led to the official adoption of Terror in September 1793 in attempt to crush internal revolts and rally the French to defeat Austria and Prussia. This is but one interpretation of the origins of the Terror, and scholars continue to debate its nature and effects.
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