The Research Question: Did British Rule of India after 1857 contribute mainly to a) underdevelopment?

 b) modern development?


Hunch or impression:


  1. underdevelopment
  2. modern development
  3. neither
  4. other


A look at some evidence

What does the evidence of exports in British India best suggest? (Choose the best answer)

A. an increase in manufactured goods and production

B. a decline in manufactured products and production

C. neither increase of decline: no change

D. increase in exports of raw materials only

E. decrease in exports of raw materials

Exports (Quantities), Indian Produce or Manufacture. Percentage change from previous year. [Assume that Cotton Twist and Yarn, Cotton Piece goods, and Jute Manufactures are manufactured goods produced in India.]

Indian exports 1881-1891

Appropriate evidence for the question at hand?

Is the evidence on exports relevant to the question about economic development/underdevelopment?

A. no

B. yes

C. maybe

D. not sure

 Conclusion: In light of the evidence on exports and our discussion:

What does this evidence suggest about the extent to which economic development occurred after 1870?

A. very little economic development

B. significant economic development

C. little or no change

D. worsened development ("underdevelopment")

E. none of the above


Qualifications and further research.