Courtesans

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Literary Representations
Hugo
Balzac
Lorettes and society

Lower Class Prostitutes and the Law
Representations in Les Miserables
Realities of Authority in Paris
Brothels and Streetwalkers


The Privileged Class: Courtesans

Defining the courtesan
Visual representations
Courtesans in reality

 

Bibliogrpahy

 

The Privileged Class: Courtesans

by Linda Kaufman

1. From the page entitled The Romantic Life of Victor Hugo the picture of Victor Hugo at the top of the page is courtesy of: http://www.geocities.com/Paris/LeftBank/9640/index.html

2. From the page entitled The Romantic Life of Victor Hugo the illustration of Adele Foucher (Bulloz; Maison de Victor Hugo) is courtesy of:Graham, Robb, Victor Hugo: a Biography.New York, London, W.W. Norton and Company, 1998

3. From the page entitled The Romantic Life of Victor Hugo the illustration of Juliette Drouet in 1832 (Bulloz; Musee Carnavalet) by A. Leon-Noel, is courtesy of:Graham, Robb, Victor Hugo: a Biography.New York, London, W.W. Norton and Company, 1998

4. From the page entitled The Romantic Life of Victor Hugo the quotes are courtesy of: Graham, Robb, Victor Hugo: a Biography. page 249 and 253, Chapter 12, New York, London, W.W. Norton and Company, 1998

5. From the page entitled Alexandre Dumas: views on women and prostitution the image is courtesy of : http://gutenberg.aol.de/autoren/dumas.htm

6. From the page entitled Alexandre Dumas: views on women and prostitution the quotes is courtesy are taken from: http://www.infoplease.com/cgi-bin/birthday?date=7-27-2000/Dumas-Alexandre

7. From the page entitled Alexandre Dumas: views on women and prostitution one of the quotes is courtesy of : Dumas, Alexandre, translated by Sir Edmund Gosse, Camille : (The Lady of the Camellias),NAL, London,1984.

8. From the page entitled Toulouse-Lautrec:Painting Prostitution as it was, both images in the rollover image are from: http://www.sandiegomuseum.org/lautrec/posterIndex.html.

9. From the page entitled Olympia,the image was taken from: http://sunsite.dk/cgfa/manet/p-manet17.htm

10. From the page entitled Le Dejeuner sur l'herb both quotes from The Impressionists by Steven Adams, Chartwell books, New Jersey, 1989 pg. 49b.

11. From the page entitled Le Dejeuner sur l'herb the image is from: http://infoeagle.bc.edu/bc_org/avp/cas/fnart/art/manet.html

12. From the page entitled Nana the image is from: http://sunsite.dk/cgfa/manet/p-manet44.htm

13. From the page entitiled Defining the courtesan the image is from: http://sunsite.dk/cgfa/manet/p-manet44.htm

14. From the page entitled Comfort and Lifestyle the image is from: http://sunsite.dk/cgfa/manet/p-manet17.htm

15. From the page entitled Comfort and Lifestyle the quote at the top of the page is taken from: http://www.liv.ac.uk/www/french/LOS/Women.pdf (pg. 75).

16. From the page entitled Freedom the image is from: http://infoeagle.bc.edu/bc_org/avp/cas/fnart/art/manet.html

17. General information was gleaned from: Balzac, Honore, Physiology of Marriage, The Johns Hopkins University Press, London, 1997.

18. General information was gleaned from: Arnot, Margret and Cornelie Usborne, Gender and Crime in Modern Europe, UCL Press, London, 1999.

Lower Class Prostitutes and the Law:

Jean Valjean: The Victim of Authority

Image obtained from the original Illustrated version of Les Miserables, available online from the UVA Online Text Center at http://etext.lib.virginia.edu/.

Quote also obtained from the Illustrated Version of Les Miserables, available online from the UVA Online Text Center at http://etext.lib.virginia.edu/. The quote appear in Chapter 1.F.2.6 "JEAN VALJEAN" Page 99.

Javert: The Predator

Image obtained from the original Illustrated version of Les Miserables, available online from the UVA Online Text Center at http://etext.lib.virginia.edu/. Quote also obtained from above source, Chapter 1.F.2.7 "THE INTERIOR OF DESPAIR", Page 105.

The Hierarchy of Authority

Information on the varying levels of authority was obtained from Harsin, Jill Policing Prostitution in 19th Century Paris: Princeton University Press, Princeton, New Jersey, 1985. Page 136-137.

Regulations Passed Against Prostitution

Regulations quoted directly from: Harsin, Jill. Policing Prostitution in Nineteeth Century Paris, Princeton University Press. Page 52-53.

Prostitution and Arrests

Chart obtained from Harsin, Jill. Policing Prostitution in Nineteeth Century Paris, Princeton University Press. Page 217.

Prostitutes in Prison

Quote from Parent-Duchatelet, Alexandre, La Prostitution a Paris Au XIXe Siecle:Editions Du Seuil, Paris, 1981. (First published 1836) Page 188. Translated from French to English by Kelly Buttermore.

Menu as well as examples of tasks performed in prison also obtained from above source, pages 188 and 191 respectively.

Causes of Unregistered and Registered Prostitution in Paris

Chart obtained from Bernheimer, Charles. Figures of Ill Repute, Duke University Press, Durham and London, 1997.Page 18.

Life in the Brothel

Image obtained from Bernheimer, Charles. Figures of Ill Repute, Duke University Press, Durham and London, 1997. Page 197. Originally painted by Toulouse-Lautrec, 1894.

Specific information ( prices of stays, etc.) about brothels obtained from Adler, Laure La Vie Quotidienne dans les Maisons Closes: Hachette Publishers, 1990.

Streetwalkers: Frequent Targets of the Gendarmerie

Image from www.mtholyoke.edu/courses/rschwart/hist255-s01/images

Quote from Corbin, Alain Women for Hire: Prostitution and Sexuality in France after 1850. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts; London, England. Page 140. Second quote: Ibid, Page 142 Third Quote: Ibid; Page 137.

Who Frequented Brothels?

Chart obtained from Harsin, Jill. Policing Prostitution in Nineteeth Century Paris, Princeton University Press. Page 146.

Literary Representations: Hugo and Balzac

by Brittany Huber

Portrait of Hugo by Gaspard-Félix Tournachon. From les Archives Photographiques, courtesy of The Encyclopedia Brittanica .

Portrait of Honore de Balzac, by Louis Boulanger

Before the Mirror, Edouard Manet, 1876. From the Thannhauser Collection of the Guggenheim Museum.

Quotation from The Spectacle of Nature: Landscape and bourgeois culture in 19th century France by Nicholas Green, Manchester University Press, Manchester and New York, 1990.

Images of Lorettes by Aubert, from originally from Le Charivari

Quotes and information on images of Lorettes from The Charged Image, Beatrice Farwell, Santa Barbara Museum of Art, Santa Barbara, 1989.

Je te donne ma malediction, by Delpech, 1827.

"Edouard Manet" from the Guggenheim Museum's on line directory of artists, http://www.guggenheimcollection.org/site/artist_work_md_961.html, article by Nancy Spector.

Image from the Fox Searchlight film Cousin Bette, 1998, courtesy of Cinema1.com

Quotation from A Harlot High and Low by Honore de Balzac, first published in 1839, published by Penquin Books, New York, 1970.