Pleasures and Pastimes of the Bourgeoisie


Manners and the Bourgeoisie
~ Pre -revolution

~Fashion in Les Mis

~Rise in Popularity
~Economic and Social Symbolism
~Representation in Les Mis

Gardens ~17th Century ~18th Century ~19th Century ~Versailles

Gambling ~Pre-Revolutionary ~Cafés & Cercles

Opéra & Theatre
~The Revolution
~Social Status
~Les Misérables

Etiquette ~Promenade ~Dances ~Dinner ~Casinos and Salons

Bibliography ~Fashion ~Etiquette ~Restaurants ~Opéra ~Picture Bibliography


Prior to the mid-seventeen hundreds, when class divisions were stark realities to the French people, etiquette distinguished the nobility from the lower classes in France. But with the French Revolution of 1789 and the rise of the wealthy bourgeoisie, the etiquette barrier, along with most others, went on sale to the highest bidder. While most French people during the late 18th - early 19th centuries really only worried about burping in public, the social climbing bourgeoisie adhered obsessively to all the nuances of etiquette. The motivation for this unusual behavior stemmed from the social climbing bourgeoisie' genuine and patriotic dislike of the French nobility and their consuming desire to infiltrate and enjoy the privilege and respect of that same social class.

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Etiquette for Gentlemen

When at a Ball

The Promenade


At the Cercle




(click picture for source information)