The Underworld

Works Cited:


The System

Famous Crime





The Alexandre Dumas père Web Site. Accessed 5/12/01 at

Berlanstein, Lenard R. Journal of Social History, "Vargrants, Beggars and Theives: Delinquent Boys in Mid-Nineteenth Century Paris".

Chevalier, Louis. Laboring Classes and Dangerous Classes. New York: Howard Fertig, Inc., 1973.

Geringer, Joseph. Vidocq: Convict Turned Detective Magnifique. Accessed 5/12/01 at

Hugo, Victor. Les Miserables. New York: Random House (Modern Library Edition), 1992.

HugoWEB. Accessed 5/14/01 at

James McNeill Whistler: American Etcher. Accessed 5/14/01 at

Kropotkin, Peter. In Russian and French Prisons. Ward and Downey: London, 1887.

Lucas, Charles. De la Reforme des Prisons. 3 vols. Paris, 1836-1838.

Les Miserables illustrations from the on-line text by the University of Virginia. Accessed 5/12/01 at

O'Brien, Patricia. The Promise of Punishment, Prisons on Nineteenth Century France. Princeton University Press: Princeton, NJ, 1982.

Perrier, Charles. Les Criminals. Etude concernant 859 condamnes. 2 vols. Lyons, 1901-1905.

Pont-au-change. Accessed 4/10/01 at

Republique Francaise, Ministere de la Justice. Accessed 5/7/01 at

Saltus, Edgar Evertson. Balzac. New York: Houghton, Mifflin and Co., 1884.

Sue, Eugene. Mysteries of Paris. Boston: The C. T. Brainard Publishing Co. (Edition de Luxe), 1845.

Wolfe, H. Ashton. True Stories of Immortal Crimes. New York: E.P. Dutton & Company, Inc., 1931.

Wright, Gordon. Insiders and Outliers: The Individual in History. San Francisco: W.H. Freeman and Company, 1981. April 10th, 2001.