- Women Writers
- Sand vs. Tristan
- --Rebels I
- --Rebels II
- --George Sand
- --Flora Tristan
- Cutting the Marionette
- The Rise of Women's
Freedom Part II
In 1832 the Saint Simonians hosted
a series of lectures about women's rights that drew the attention
of Claire Demar and Suzanne Voliquin who would, later in that
year, publish their journal: Tribune des Femmes. All the
writers were proletarian women who spoke out about such things as legal
reform, the slavery of married women and the frequent rape occurrences.
Though they never gained enough funds, they also had plans to
set up a women's shelter for unmarried pregnant women and widows.
- About this time, a famous writer
was in the making, George Sand. Her first solo novel, Indiana,
came out in 1832 and set the tone of romantic idealism that Sand
would soon be known for. Her books, however, were not void of
a feminist undertone. In 1833 she published Lelia, the
story of a headstrong intellectual
- A Brief History
- 1790-- Condorcet's Essay
- 1791-- Olympe de Gourges'
- 1802-- Stael's Delphine
- 1803-- Stael exiled
- 1804--Napolean's Civil
- 1825--Saint Simonianism forms
- 1832--Sand's Indiana
- 1832--Tribune des Femmes
- 1833--Sand's Lelia
- 1836--Girardin's Les Lettres
- Parisiennes first publication
- 1836--La Gazette des Femmes'
- 1843-- Tristan's l'Union
- 1848--d'Agoult's Histoire
- Revolution de 1848
- girl, standing up to the restrictions
of society. In
- letters, Sand's friends often
addressed her as Lelia and in her own letters and journals she
admitted that Lelia was in part an autobiographical tale.
- Another rising author in the
'30s was Delphine Gay (otherwise known as Mme Girardin.) From
1836-1848, she wrote a column, Les Letters Parisiennes,
in her husband's newspaper, La Presse. Following other
writers like Aurore Dupin (George Sand) and Marie d'Agoult (Daniel
Stern) she wrote under the pen name Victomte de Launay.
- 1836 also marked the year that
Gazette Des Femmes began publication. Unlike the women
writers of Tribune des Femmes, the Gazette was
written by an elite upper class of both male and female bourgeois.
Every Thursday the editors and subscribers would get together
to discuss the motives and political viewpoints of the paper.
Amongst those who attended were Hortense Allart, Flora Tristan
and Eugenie Niboyer. What is most puzzling still today about
the Gazette is that the owner and editor of the journal
claimed to be step
- brother and sister when in fact,
they were lovers. Even stranger is that though the man seemed
fully in charge of the paper, he kept it under his mistress'
name. Though he expressed interest in making the Gazette
a daily paper, so long as it was under the name of a woman, it
legally could not be produced more than montly. Many historians
- Congres Masculino-Foemino-Literaire
- Author unknown (Pritchett)
on the right, cigar in hand is most likely George Sand. She was
notorious for wearing men's clothing and generally acting in
ways considered immoral and inappropriate for women of her time.
The text under the photo describes this as a meeting of male-female
writers. This caricature represents the common assumptions that
women writers were rude, vulgar and masculine women. They all
appear well dressed but with rather silly and obnoxious expressions
on their faces. The artist was obviously not in favor of the
growing number of women writers.
wonder today why this couple
purposely hindered the production of their very own journal.
The 1840s proved to be an active
time for women writers. In 1843, Flora Tristan produced L'Union
Ouvriere, in which she brought women's emancipation to the
attention of working men. In 1848, Marie d'Agoult wrote the history
of the Revolution of 1848 in the hopes of encouraging social
reform. Her depiction of the influential women in the revolution
stood out to many readers today as her most powerful part.
Click here to view the Gazette