Unmasking the Bourgeoisie

Case Examples

A Love Story




Real Life


Aurore Dupin (George Sand),

Jean Lebrun,

Victor Hugo


The Separation of Aurore Dupin (George Sand)

Aurore Dupin married Casimir Dudevant at the age of 18 in 1822 and spent the first years of marriage very happy. But after the first few years Dupin grew tired of her well meaning, yet insensitive husband. She was able to obtain a separation and had several lovers. Dupin, after changing her name to George Sand, wrote a novel entitled Indiana about the societal rules that bound a wife to her husband. The main character of the book leaves her unhappy marriage for true love (Norton 405-406 ).

The Case of Jean Lebrun

Jean Lebrun remarried Hebert, who had children from her previous marriage. Lebrun loved his new wife's silver so much he decided to take possession of it. While the table was being set for their wedding meal Lebrun saw that Hebert's name was not engraved on the silver, so he told her that he would have everything engraved with his name. Hebert, not wanting that to happen, immediately took the silver to a goldsmith to have her childrens' names engraved. Lebrun was so angry he did not get Hebert's silver that he beat her. Within a week of their marriage, Hebert began divorce proceedings (Phillips 1980, p. 122)

Victor Hugo

Victor Hugo married his childhood friend, Adele Foucher, in 1822 and had five children by her. Hugo met actress Juliette Drouet in 1833 and Hugo and Drouet remained lovers until Drouet's death in 1883. Foucher also had a lover: literary critic Saint-Beuve, one of Hugo's friends. Foucher and Hugo remained married and never separated (Norton 125-126).