Depicts a construction site with
a wide variety of workers. Also note the owner and the contracter
in the foreground, speaking to each other and holding a paper.
They are easily distiguishable by their clothes, such as a top
hat and long coat.
Bibliotheque Forney, Paris as found in Traugott
This sketch depicts some migrant workers
departing for another town. Many men worked for a period of time
as migrant workers. Typically, these men were engaged in construction
related trades and would go to the city at the height of construction
season and then return to their families to help with agricultural
Cottage industry was popular particularly
at the beginning of the nineteenth century, and though it declined
in popularity due to industrialization
trends, it continued to be a way of
life for many.
Cottage industry typically involved
an entire family, with the man being in charge of the means of
production. All the labor would take place in the home, with
families often working from morning till night to get by. The
wife and children would also work at whatever the family was
A typical cottage industry might be
a weaver who worked at home and then sold his wares to a middle
man who supplied them at a higher price to others. The family
would be paid by the piece, which was taken for granted then,
but is illegal in this country today
Opportunities as skilled artisans as
declined as the century progressed due to industrialization
trends, but certainly remained central
through the entire century. At the beginning of the century,
skilled artisans were often difficult to distinguish from the
petty bourgeousie, although as industrialization progressed,
it became clearer.
Most skilled artisans had a fairly long
period of apprenticeship, ranging from years to months between
occupations and decades. This long period of unpaid apprenticeship
put positions as skilled artisans out of the reach of many poorer
working class families.
At the beginning of the century, after
an apprenticeship, a young man hoping to become a skilled artisan
would complete what was known as a Tour of France, where he would
go from city to city honing his skills. he would become a member
of a compangonnes which was a trade based organization that served
as a surrogate family for a young man in a particular trade.
This sketch depicts a mason and his
L'Illustration, 9 October 1847, p92
as found in Traugott