Like The Money Order this almost farcical novel focuses on contemporary Senegal. Here Sembene uses the image of sexual impotence as the metaphor for the newly independent nation. The novel also documents the shocking and widening gap between a self-absorbed wealthy elite class and the multitudes living in extreme poverty.

Critical Works

See also
Xala (film)

N'noruka, M. "Une lecture de Xala de Ousmane Sembene." Peuples Noirs, Peuples Africains n.36, Nov.-Dec. 1983: 57-76.

Nicoara, Nicolea. "Un Mare Roman African: Xala Sembene Ousmane." Romania Literar 20 Dec.1979: 20-21.

Robinson, Cedric. "Domination and Imitation: Xala and the Emergence of Black Bourgeoisie." Race and Class 22 (1980): 147-158.

Saber, Ahmed. "Political and social though in the West African novel: Mongo Beti's Perpetue, Ousmane Sembene's Xala, and Ayi Kwei Armah's the Beautiful are not yet Born." Diss. Abstracts, Anne Arbor: DAI, 1986.

Sagot Duvauroux, Jean-Louis. "Xala ou les impuissants perdent le pouvoir." La Nouvelle Critique 94 (1976): 32-34.

Wallace, Karen Smyley. "Les Bouts de Bois De Dieu and Xala: a Comparative Analysis of Female Roles in Sembene's Novels." Paper in Romance vol.5 n.3 (1983): 89-96.

Winster, Archer. "Xala: a Senegalese Fable." New York Post 6 Oct. 1975: 23.

"Xala ( Impotence)." Variety 20 Aug. 1975: 19.

Bolognesi, Valentina “ ‘Xala’ o l'universo maschile rovesciato.” Acme: Annali della Facoltà di Lettere e Filosofia dell'Università degli Studi di Milano 1998 Jan-Apr; 51 (1): 247-56.

Gugler, Josef. “African Writing Projected onto the Screen: Sambizanga, Xala, and Kongi's Harvest.” African Studies Review (Apr. 1999) ; 42 (1): 79-14.

Harrow, Kenneth. “Sembène Ousmane's Xala: The Use of Film and Novel as Revolutionary Weapon.” Studies in Twentieth Century Literature (Spring 1980): 177-188

Ijere, Muriel. “La Condition feminine dans Xala de Sembène Ousmane.” Revista de Litterature & d’Esthétique Négro-Africaines 1988; 36-45.

Iyam, David Uru. “The Silent Revolutionaries: Ousmane Sembène's 'Emitai,' 'Xala,' and 'Ceddo'.” The African Studies Review 1986; 79-87.
Lindfors, Bernth. “ Penetrating Xala” International Fiction Review 1997; 24 (1-2): 1-11.

Lynne, Thomas J. “Politics, Plunder and Postcolonial Tricksters: Ousmane Sembène's ‘Xala.” International Journal of Francophone Studies 2003; 6 (3): 183-95.

Mushengyezi, Aaron. “Reimaging Gender and African Tradition? Ousmane Sembène's Xala Revisited.” Africa Today Fall 2004: 47-62.

Niang, Sada. “Modes d'écriture dans L'Aventure ambiguë et ‘Xala.’” Revue Francophone. Spring 1993; 8 (1): 77-91.

Ojo, S. Ade. “Le ‘Xala’ dans Xala de Sembène Ousmane.” Ethiopiques 1988: 185-204.

Saber, Ahmed; Ufahamu. “Ousmane Sembene's ‘Xala’: An Anti-Bourgeois Novel.” Journal of the African Activist Association. (Fall 1993); 21 (3): 16-26

Bayo, Ogunjimi. “Ritual Archetypes: Ousmane's Aesthetic Medium in Xala.” Ufahamu: Journal of the African Activist Association 1985; 14 (3): 128-138.