Critical Works

Abanime, Emeka P. "Le symbolisme de l'impuissance dans Xala d'Ousmane Sembene." Présence Francophone, 19 (1979): 29-35.

Abety, Peter A. "Women activists in Ayi Kwei Armah's Two Thousand Seasons and Ousmane Sembene, God's Bits of Wood; a study of the role of women in liberation struggle." Bridges; a Senegalese Journal of English Dec.1992: 19-3?.

Abrahams, Cecil. "African Writing and Themes of Colonialism and Post-Independence Disillusionment." Canadian Journal of African Studies 12 (1978): 119-125.

A, B. "Sembene Ousmane; Les cinéastes ne sont pas des martyrs." Fraternité Matin 13- 14 Mars 1982: 16.

"African Cinema Seeks a New Language- Sembene Ousmane, Writer and Film Director (Senegal)." Young Cinema and Theatre 3 (1983): 26-28.

Ade Ojo, S. "André Malraux et Sembene Ousmane: Créateurs De Romans Proletaire?" Peuples Noirs, Peuples Africains n.17 1980: 117-134.

Ade Ojo, S. "André Malraux et Sembene Ousmane: Peintre du Prolétaire." Neohelicon vol.18 n.1 (1992) : 117-154.

Ade Ojo S. "La Xala dans Xala de Sembene Ousmane." Ethiopique vol. 5 n.1-2 (1988): 185-204.

Ade,Ojo S. "Revolt, violence and duty in Ousmane Sembene, God’s Bits of Wood." Nigeria Magazine n.53, July-Sept. 1985: 58-68.

Aire, Victor O. "Ousmane Sembene’s Les Bouts De Bois De Dieu: A Lesson in Consciousness." Modern Language Studies vol.8 n.2 (1978): 72-79.

Aje S, O. "Écriture et institution social chez Zola, Tournier et Sembene." Komparatistische Hefte 8 (1983) : 25-37.

"L'importance de l'écriture en tant qu'institution social dans l'Argent (Emile Zola), le Roi des Aulnes (Michel Tournier), et Le Mandat (Ousmane Sembene)." Neohelicon vol.16 n.1 (1989) : 237-255.

Akoua, Solange, and Fofana Ibrahime. "La femme africaine dans Les Bouts Des Bois De Dieu." Eburnea 106 (1976): 17-19.

Akpadomonye, Patrick. "La parodie et la réécriture chez Sembene Ousmane: Problèmes textologiques." Neohelicon vol.16 n.2 (1989): 211-219.

Allen, Tom. "Pleasure Over Pain: the Good, Better and Best." Village Voice 1 Jan. 1979: 39.

Allen, Tom. "The Third World Oracle." Village Voice 20 Feb. 1978: 40.

Altheer, David. "Xala." Drum (Lagos) Dec 1977: 22.

Amengual, Barthelemy. "Ceddo, de Sembene Ousmane (Senegal)." Positif n.195-196, July- August 1977: 83.

Amiel, Mireille. "Ceddo de Ousmane Sembene." Cinéma 77 n.223, July - August 1977: 75.

Amiel, Mireille. "Ceddo, Ousmane Sembene." Cinéma 79 n.249, July 1979: 92-93.

Amont, Jacques, Sylvie Pierre. "Huit fois deux." Cahiers Du Cinéma 260 (1968): 30.

Amuka, Peter. "Some Uses of Sex-Relations in the Writings of Sembene Ousmane." Diss. 1979.

Amyidoho, Kofi. "African Creative Fiction and Poetics of Social Change." Komparatistische Hefte, 13 (1986): 67-82.

Andrade Watkins, Claire. “Film production in francophone Africa 1961 to 1977: Ousmane Sembene- An exception.” Ed. Gadjigo, Ramba; Faulkingham, Raphl; Cassirer, Thomas; Sander, reinhard. Ousmane Sembene Dialogues with Critics and Writers. Amherst: U of Massachusetts Press. 1993.

Andrews, Nigel. "Le Mandat (The Money Order)." Monthly Film Bulletin, n.40, February 1973: 30-31.

Anon. "Sembene Ousmane and the Censor." Africa Oct. 1978: 85.

Anyidoho, Kofi. "African creative fiction and poetics of social change." Komparatistische Helft 13 (1986): 67-81.

Arbois, Janick. "Le Mandat." Téléciné February 1969: 29.

Arbois, Janick. "Le Mandat." Télérama 15 Dec.1968: 57.

Arbois, Janick. "Ousmane Sembene: L'indépendance ça sert à Quoi?" Télérama 15 Dec.1968: 54.

Arbois, Janick. "Xala." Télérama 10 March 1976: 82.

Armaha, Ayi Kewi. "Islam in Ceddo." West Africa 8 Oct. 1984: 2031.

Armes, Roy. "Ousmane Sembene: Question of Change." Cine Tract Summer-Fall 1981: 71-77.

Arnold, Gary. "The Curse of Storytelling Impotence." Washington Post 29 Sept. 1977: d9.

Arora, K L. "Africa Speaks Out." Film World vol.16 n.3, March 1979: 67-68.

Arowolo E, O. "Problems of Translation in African Writings." Présence Africaine 123 (1982): 188-194.

Assaad, Samia A. "L'Harmattan par Ousmane Sembene." Œuvres Afro Asiatiques vol.1 n.2 (1968): 178-180.

Bâ, A J. "Xala, Ceddo Et les autres..." Le Soleil 4 July 1984: 3.

Bassan, Raphael. "Ceddo." Ecran 79 Sept. 1979: 62-63.

Bassan, Raphael. "Comment filmer l'Afrique." Afrique-Asie 24 April 1984: 50-52.

Bayo, Ogunjimi. "Ritual Archetypes: Ousmane's Aesthetic Medium in Xala." Ufahamu vol.14 n.3 (1985) : 128-138.

Berruer, Andre. "Un cinéaste Africain: Ousmane Sembene." Pas à Pas n.142, March 1964: 31-34.

Bestman, Martin. "L'esthétique romanesque de Sembene Ousmane." Etudes Littéraires 7 (1974): 395-403.

Bestman, Martin. "Sembene Ousmane, romancier et les fonctions socio-esthétique du roman negro-africain." Diss. Université Laval, 1973.

Bestman, Martin T. "L'univers de Xala." Asemka 5 (1979): 51-62.

Bestman, Martin T. "L'univers de Xala." L’Afrique Littéraire et Artistique 48 (1978): 39-48.

B, F. "Le Mandat." Le film français- la Cinématographie Française 13 Dec.1968: 17.

Bilali, Samba. "Sembene Ousmane: Un écrivain profond et lucide de notre temps." Libération Afrique 1 (1979): 21.

Billard, P, M Martin. "La cinquième semaines Internationales de la Critique au prochain Festival De Cannes." Cinéma 66 n.106, May 1966: 89.

Binet, Jacques. "Cinéma africain." Afrique Contemporaine n.83, Jan- Feb.1976: 27-30.

Boafo, Y S. "Voltaique d'Ousmane Sembene; Commentaires et observations." Présence Francophone 15 (1977): 11-30.

Bobrowska, Halina H. "Powisci Pisarzy Senegalu. Abdoulaye Sadji I Cusmane Sembene." Przeglad Socjologiczny, 20 (1967): 205-230.

Bogle, Donald. Toms, Coons, Multanos, Mammies and Bucks. New York: Vicking P, 1973.

Bonitzer, Pascal. "L'argent fantôme." Cahiers Du Cinéma n.209, Feb.1969: 57-58.

Bonnet, Jean-Claude. "Ceddo." Cinématographe n.28, June1977: 44.

Bonnet, Jean-Claude. "Ousmane Sembene." Cinématographe n.28, June1977: 43-44.

Bontemps, Jacques. "Semaine de la critique à Cannes: La Noire de... De Sembene Ousmane." Cahiers Du Cinéma n.179, June1966: 48.

Bory, Jean-Louis. "Le Mandat." Dossiers Du Cinéma, Film 1 (1971): 137-139.

Bosséno, Christian. "Ceddo." La Revue du Cinéma, Image et Son n.342, Sept. 1979: 114-116.

Bosséno, Christian. "Entretien avec Ousmane Sembene." La Revue du Cinéma, Image et Son n.342, Sept 1979: 116-118.

Boughedir, Ferid. "Le cinéma sénégalais: Le plus important d'Afrique noire." Cinéma-Québec Vol.3 n. 9-10, August 1974: 24-26.

Boughedir, Ferid. "Les grandes dates du cinéma africain." Jeune Afrique 25 Dec. 1985: 89.

Boughedir, Ferid. "Quel visage pour le cinéma africain?" Jeune Afrique 25 Dec.1972: 9.

Boughedir, Ferid. "The Blossoming of the Senegalese Cinema." Young Cinema and Theater, 4 (1974): 14-20.

Boughedir, Ferid. "Une parabole privilégies." Jeune Afrique 29 avril 1976: 56-58.

Boujut, Michel. "Ceddo de Sembene Ousmane, film sénégalais." Les Nouvelles Littéraires n.2695, 12 July 1979: 28-29.

Berrina, Brenda F. “Trough Her Prism of Social and Political Contexts: Sembene’s Female Characters in Tribal Scars.” Ed & Introd. Davies, Carol Boyce. Ed. & Pref. Graves, Anne Adams. Ngambika: Studies of Women in African Literature. Trenton, NJ: Africa World. 1986.

Broz, Martin. "The birth of African Cinema." Young Cinema and Theatre 1 (1968): 37-43.

"Caméra et fusil, Ousmane Sembene." Cinéma 72 n.162, Jan. 1972: 20.

Canby, Vincent. "Film: Ceddo, a Pageant from Sembene's Africa." New York Times 17 Feb. 1978: C8.

Cancel, Robert. "Epic Element in Ceddo." A Current Bibliography on African Affairs vol.18 n.1 (1985-1986): 3-19.

Capdenac, Michel. "Le Mandat, film sénégalais de Sembene Ousmane." Les Lettres Françaises 27 Nov. 1968: 22.

Capdenac, Michel. "Les damnes de la terre." Les Lettres Françaises 27 Nov.1970: 28-29.

Cardies, Rene. "Jeune cinéma d'Afrique noire." La Revue du Cinéma, Image et Son Jan. 1968: 16-18. Manque le #

Case, Frederic Ivor. "Littérature traditionnelle et forme romanesque; Analyse du conte comme procédé littéraire romanesque." Ethiopiques, vol. 4 n.3 (1987): 32-52.

Case, F. "Worker's movements: Revolution and Women's Consciousness in God's Bits of Wood." Canadian Journal of African Studies vol.15 n.2 (1981): 277-292.

"Ceddo." Variety 1 July 1977: 18.

Cervoni, Albert, Bop Torp Pederson. "Den Afroarabiska Filmen." Chaplin166 1 (1980): 19-21.

Cervonie, Albert. "Le Mandat, si Dakar m’était conté." Cinema 69 n.134 march 1969: 119-121.

Cham, Baboucar Mbye. "Art and ideology in the Work of Sembene Ousmane and Haile Gerima." Présence Africaine 129 (1984): 79-91.

Cham, Baboucar Mbye. "Islam and the Creative Imagination in Senegal." American Journal of Islamic Studies, Aug. 1984: 1-22.

Cham, Baboucar Mbye. “ Official history, popular memory: reconfiguration of the African past in the films of Ousmane Sembene.” Ed. Gadjigo, Ramba; Faulkingham, Raphl; Cassirer, Thomas; Sander, Reinhard. Ousmane Sembene Dialogues with Critics and Writers. Amherst: U of Massachusetts Press. 1993.

Cham, Baboucar Mbye. "The creative artist, state and society in Africa." A Current Bibliography on African Affairs vol.17 n.1 (1984): 17-28.

Cham, Mbye Baboucar. "Ousmane Sembene and the Aesthetics of African Oral Traditions." Africana Journal vol.13 n.1-4 (1982) : 24-40.

Chauvet, Louis. "Le Mandat." Le Figaro 4 Dec. 1968: 28.

Cheriaa, Tahar. Ferid Boughedir. "Jeune Afrique fait parler Sembene Ousmane." Jeune Afrique 2 april 1976: 54-56.

Cheriaa, Tahar. "Ousmane Sembene: Carthage et le chemin de la dignité africaine et arabe." Cinémarabe n. 4-5, Nov.1976: 54-55.

Cheriaa, Tahar. "Ousmane Sembene: Carthage et le cinéma africain." Cinéma Québec August 1974: 51-52.

Cheriaa, Tahar. "Problématique du cinéaste africain: L'artiste et la révolution." Cinéma-Québec August 1974: 13-17.

Cheriaa, Tahar. "The Artist and Revolution." Positive Revue vol.1 n.2 (1979): 3-7.

Chevalier, Jacques. "Emitai, Dieu Du Tonnerre." La Revue du Cinéma, Image et Son n.320-321 Oct (1977): 97.
Chevrier, Jacques. "Sembene Ousmane, Ecrivain." Cinémaction 34 (1985): 12-16.

Ciervide, Joaquin Enrique. "Ousmane Sembene témoin de la cité." Congo Afrique 7 (1967): 503-511.

Ciment, Michel. "Mandabi." Positif n.100-101, Dec-Jan 1968-1969: 45.

Cluny, Claude Michel. "Emitai de Sembene Ousmane." Cinéma 72 n.165, April 1972: 40-42.

Cnockaert, Andre. "Vehi-Ciosane, récit clé dans l'œuvre de Sembene Ousmane." Zaire Afrique, vol.28 n.222, (1988):109-121.

Coad, Malcom. "Ousmane Sembene and Ceddo." Index on Censorship vol.10 n.4 (1981): 33-32.

Cohn, Bernard. "Une semaine de critique en 1966 à Cannes." Positif, n.79, Oct. (1966): 96.

Copans, Jean. "Entre l'histoires et les mythes." Cinémaction 34 (1985): 57-59.

Copans, Jean. "Non à l'ethnocinéma." Afrique Asie 6 Feb. 1978: 48-49.

Corcoran, Patrick. O pays, mon beau peuple. London: Methuem, 1986.

Cyclope, Le. "Xala, Ruth Barre d'Ousmane Sembene." Le Soleil 27 Feb. 1975: 11.

Dagneau, Gilles. "Xala." La Revue Du Cinéma, Image et Son n.305, April 1976: 102-105.

Dahmani, Abdelaziz. "Samory ou le couronnement." Jeune Afrique 14 Jan. 1981: 68.

Dailly, Christophe. "L'Harmattan de Sembene Ousmane." Annales de l’Université d’Abidjan 3D (1970): 59-61.

Daja, Allarabaye. "Effervescence dans le cinéma sénégalais." Unir Cinéma n.20-21, Sept-Dec 1985: 31-32.

Dalmeida, Irene. "Xala de Sembene Ousmane." Calabar Studies in Modern Languages vol.1 n.1 (1977): 64-68.

"Dakar: Sembene's Railway Strike on Stage." Afrika vol.25 n.8-9 (1984): 40.

Daney, Serge. "Ceddo (O, Sembene)." Cahiers du Cinéma n.304, October 1979: 51-53.

Dash J, Michael. "The Outsider in West African Fiction: an Approach to Three Novels." Literary Half Yearly vol.21 n.1 (1980): 19-29.

Debrix, Jean-Rene. "Le Cinéma africain." Afrique Contemporaine n.38-39, July-Oct. 1968: 7-12.

Decaux, Emmanuel. "Ceddo." Cinématographe, n.15, Oct. 1979: 48-49.

Deidhiou, Djib. "Ceddo de Sembene Ousmane: Un pas de plus vers Samory." Le Soleil 7 July 1984: 7.

Delmas, Jean, Ginette Delmas. "Ousmane Sembene : Un film est un débat." Jeune Cinéma n.99, Jan 1976: 13-17.

Delmas, Jean. "Jeune cinéma d'Afrique et de Yougoslavie." Jeune Cinéma, n.22, April 1977: 20-22.

Delmas, Jean. "Sembene Ousmane." L’Afrique Littéraire et Artistique 49 (1978): 111-113.

Delmas, Jean. "Xala." Jeune Cinéma. n.93 March 1976: 30-32.

Devin, Jean. "A Senegalese Film and French-Algerian Cooperation." Young Cinema and Theater 2 (1969): 26-27.

Diack, Moktar. "Emitai or African Arisen." Young Cinema and Theater 4 (1972): 27-29.

Diallo, Siardiou. "Le cinéma africain n'est pas un cinéma de folklore." Jeune Afrique 27 janv. 1973: 44-49.

Diedhiou, Djib. "Raymaon Hermantier: La passion du peuple." Le Soleil 1 March. 1984: 3.

Diedhiou, Djib. "Sembene Ousmane- Mon prochain film: Samory." Le Soleil 4 July 1984: 2-3.

Dione, Sakhewar. "Ceddo, recouvrer L'héritage negro-africain." Le Soleil 19 July 1984: 8.

Diop, Abdoulaye Bara. "La polygamie au Sénégal." Cinémaction 34 (1985): 51-54.

Diouf, Bara. "Ceddo ou la résistance à l'islamisation." Le Soleil 10 July 1987: 7.

Diouf, Bara. "Le Mandat, film d'Ousmane Sembene." Dakar Matin 7 Dec. 1968: 8.

Diouf, Madior. La Composition en abyme dans trois romans sénégalais. Colloque sur la littérature et esthétique negro-africaine. Dakar: Nouvelles Eds. Africaines,1979. (pages)

Dowling, Tom. "Two New Movies: the Impotence of a Groom and His Country." Washington Star 28 Sept. 1977: b1-b4.

Dubroux, Daniele. "Exhibition (Xala)." Cahiers du Cinéma n.266-267, May 1976 : 72-74.
Dury, Helene. "Emitai de Sembene Ousmane." Lutte Ouvrière 14 May 1977: 20.

Dury, Helene. "Un entretien avec Sembene Ousmane." Lutte Ouvrière 14 May 1977: 20.

Duvigneau, Michel. "La Noire de." Téléciné Aug.-Sept.134 1967: 46.

Echenim, Kester. "Sembene Ousmane et le mythe du peuple messianique." L’Afrique Littéraire et Artistique 46 (1977): 51-59.

Eder, Richard. "Film Festival: Cutting, Radiant Xala." New York Times 1 Oct. 1975: 62.

Ejrnaes, Anne-Marie. Afrika- Litteratur Og Samfund: Individ Og Kollektiv I Fem Samfundskritiske Romaner. Copenhagen: Medusa, 1977.

"Emitai." Variety 12 Aug. 1972: 28.

Enagnon, Yenoukoume. "Sembene Ousmane, la théorie marxiste et le roman." Peuples Noirs, Peuples Africains n.11 Sept-Oct.1979: 92-127.

Engelibert, Anne-Marie, Françoise Martin. "Sembene Ousmane: Une oeuvre, deux moyens d'expressions." Aujourd’hui l’Afrique 3 (1975): 36-41.

Fanon, Josie. "Au nom de La tolérance- Un entretien avec Sembene Ousmane." Demain l’Afrique .32 (1979):72-73.

Fares, Tewfik. "Les gris-gris de Ousmane Sembene." Jeune Afrique 22 July 1972: 66.

"Film Makers and African Culture." Africa 71 (1977): 80.

Fiofori, Tam. "Film Realities." West Africa 27 April 1987: 820.

Fisher, Lucy. "Xala: Astudy in Black Humor." Millennium 7-9 (1980): 165-172.

Flatley, Guy. "Senegal is Senegal, Not Harlem." New York Times 2 Nov. 1969: d17.

Forbes, Jili. "Xala." Monthly Film Bulletin vol.33 n.515 (1976): 260-261.

Frank N. Magille,, ed. "Ceddo." Margill' Survey of Cinema: Foreign Language Films. Englewood Cliffs N.J.: Salem P, 1985. 492-496.

Freuser, Wilfried F. "Rochards Wright’s native son and Ousmane Sembene's Le Docker Noir." Komparatistiche Hefte 14 (1986): 103-116.

Gadjigo, Samba. Ousmane Sembene: Dialogue with Critics and Writers. Ed. Gadjigo, Samba; Faulkingham, Raphl; Cassirer, Thomas; Sander, Reinhard. Amherst: U of Massachusetts Press. 1993.

Gabriel, Teshome H. "Xala: a Cinema of Wax and Gold." Présence Africaine 116 (1980): 202-214.
Gardies, Rene. "La Noire De..." La Revue du Cinéma, Image et Son n.210, Nov. 1967: 132-133.

Gauthier, Guy. "Le Mandat." Revue du Cinéma, Image et Son n.224, Jan. 1969: 99-100.

Gerard, Albert, Jeannine Laurent. "Sembene's Progeny: a New Trend in the Senegalese Novel." Studies in Twentieth Century Literature vol.4 n.2 (1980): 133-145.

Ghali, Noureddine. "Ousmane Sembene." Cinéma 76, n.208, April 1976: 83-95.

Ghali, Noureddine. "Xala, histoire symbolique d’une déchéance." Cinéma 76 n.208, April 1976 : 95

Ghali, Nouredidne. "Emitai, la vraie nature du colonialisme." Cinéma 76 n.208, April 1976: 94.

Glinga, Werner. "Der schriftsteller und die politishe Macht: Ngugi wa Thiong'o in Kenia und Ousmane Sembene in Senegal." Neohelicon vol.16, n.2 (1989) : 129-155.

Gourdeau, Jean-Pierre. "Le didactisme révolutionnaire des Bouts De Bois de Dieu de Sembene Ousmane." Annales de l’Université d’Abijan 8D (1975): 185-201.

Gregor, Ulrich. "Interview with Ousmane Sembene." Framework 7-8 (1978): 35-37.

Grelier, Robert. "Ousmane Sembene." Revue du Cinéma, image et Son n.322, Nov. 1977: 74-80.

Gross, Linda. "Africa's Xala and Sambizanga." Los Angeles Times 23 Sept. 1977, sec. IV: 14-15.

Gueye A, Mactar. "Spelling It Out." Index on Censorship vol.8 n. 4 (1979): 57-58.

Gupta, Udayan, Deborah Johnson. "Seven Days Interview: Sembene." Seven Days 10 Mar. 1978: 26-27.
Gupta, Udayan. "Banned in Senegal." Seven Days, 10 Mar. 1981, p.25.

Gupta, Udayan. "Ceddo." Ciénaste vol.8 n.4 (1978): 37-38.

Gupta, Udayan. "The Watchful Eyes of Ousmane Sembene." N.Y. Amsterdam News 11 Feb. 1978: b12.

Haffner, Pierre. "Der Widerstandskampfer: Sembene Ousmane." Revue Pour le Cinéma Français Nov. 1989: 27-28, 76-92.

Haffner, Pierre. "Eléments pour un autoportrait magnétique." Cinémaction 34 (1985): 20-24.

Haffner, Pierre. Palabres Sur Le Cinématographe. Kinshasa: Les Presses Africaines, 1978.

Haffner, Pierre. "Radiographie du cinéma sénégalais." Filméchange 18 (1982): 41-48.

Haffner, Pierre. "Sandy et Bozambo, entretien avec Jean Rouch sur Sembene Ousmane." Cinémaction 34 (1985): 86-94.

Haffner, Pierre. "Sembene Ousmane à Kinshasa." Recherche, pédagogie et Culture 37 (1978): 42-48.
Hairston, Loyle. "Class Consciousness in an African Novel." Freedomways 18 (1978): 96-100.

Hall, Susan. "African Women on Film." Africa Report Jan-Feb. 1977: 15-17.

Harrow, Kenneth. "Sembene Ousmane's Xala; The Use of Film and Novel as Revolutionary Weapon." Studies in Twentieth Century Literature vol.4 n.2 (1980): 177-188.

Harrow, Kenneth W. "Art and Ideology in Les Bouts De Bois De Dieu: Relalism's artifices." The French Review vol.62 n.3 (1989): 483-493.

Henebelle, Guy. "Ousmane Sembene." Jeune Cinéma 34 (1968): 4-9.

Hennebelle, Guy, Ferid Boughedir, Mohand Ben Salama, and Abdou Achouba Delati. "Le Cinéma de Ousmane Sembene." Ecran 76, n.43, 15 Jan. 1976: 41-50.

Hennebelle, Guy. Guide Des Films Anti-Imperialistes. Paris: Editions Du Centenaire, 1975.

Hennebelle, Guy. "Les films africains en 1975." Recherche, Pédagogie et Culture 17-18 (1975): 7-9.
Hennebelle, Guy. "Ousmane Sembene: En Afrique noire nous sommes gouvernés par des enfants mongoliens du colonialisme." Les Lettres Française 6 Oct. 1971: 16
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Hennebelle, Guy. "Ousmane Sembene: Pour moi le cinéma est un moyen d'action politique, mais." L’Afrique Littéraire et Artistique 7 (1969): 73-82.

Hennebelle, Guy. "Ousmane Sembene." L’Afrique Littéraire et Artistique 20 (1972): 202-208.

Hennebelle, Guy. "Pour ou contre un cinéma engagé?" L’Afrique Littéraire et Artistique 19 (1971): 87-93.

Hennebelle, Guy. "Sembene Ousmane." L’Afrique Littéraire et Artistique 49 (1978): 116-126.

Hennebelle, Guy. "Sembene parle de ses films." Cinémaction 34 (1985): 25-29.

Hennebelle, Guy. "Socially Committed or Exotic? Film from French-Speaking Africa." Young Cinema and Theater 3 (1970): 24-33.

Hennebelle, Guy. "Vers un tiers cinéma africain." Jeune Afrique 2 Sept. 1969: 40.

Herzberger Fofana, Pierrette. "Sembene Ousmane, forgeron de caractères: Une interview avec le romancier et cinéaste sénégalais." Komparatistische Hefte 8 (1983) : 55-63.

Hill, Allan. "African Film and Filmmakers." Essence July 1978: 18-24.

Hinxman, Margaret. "So Many Children..." Sunday Telegraph 1 July 1973: 18.

H, M. "Sembene Ousmane, cinéaste: Un livre de Paulin Soumanou Vieryra." L’Afrique Littéraire 27 (1973): 87-88.
Hoberman, J. "Inside Senegal." Village Voice 6 Feb. 1978: 42-48.

Hobson, Sheila Smith. "Ceddo: an Epic Masterpiece." N.Y. Amsterdam News 11 Feb. 1978: b12.

Hobson, Sheila Smith. "In the Senegalese Filmmaker's Will to Succeed, a Lesson for All." N.Y. Amsterdam News 11 Feb. 1978: b12.

Huannou, Adrien. "L'islam et le christianisme face à la domination colonial dans Les Bouts De Bois De Dieu." Nouvelles Du Sud 6 (1986-1987) : 41-48.

Huannou, Adrien. "Sembene Ousmane, cinéaste et écrivain Sénégalais." L’Afrique Littéraire, vol. 32, n.33 (1974): 24-28, 35-40.

Huannou, Adrien. "Xala: Une satire caustique de la société bourgeoise sénégalaise." Présence Africaine 103 (1977): 145-157.

Ijere M, I. "Sembene Ousmane et l'institution polygamique." Ethiopiques vol.5 n.1-2 (1988) : 173-184.

Ijere, Muriel. "La condition féminine dans Xala de Sembene Ousmane." Revue de Littérature et Esthétique Negro Africaine 8 (1988): 36-45.

Ijere, Muriel. "Victime et bourreau: L'africain de Sembene Ousmane." Peuples noirs, Peuples Africains n. 35, Sept.-Oct. 1983: 67-85.

Ijere, Muriel. "La condition féminine dans Xala de Sembene Ousmane." L’Afrique Littéraire 85 (1989): 25-34.

Iyam, David Uru. "The Silent Revolutionaries: Ousmane Sembene's Emitai, Xala and Ceddo." The African Studies Review vol.29 n.4 (1986): 79-87.

Jacob, Haruna Jiyah. "The Voice of the People?" West Africa 27 May 1985: 1045-1046.

Jacquemin, Jean-Pierre. "Sembene Ousmane écrivain public." Lectures Africaines vol.1, n.2 (1972-1973): 82-98.

"J’ai fait parler Sembene Ousmane." Jeune Afrique 19 sept.1979: 72-75.

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*Trelles, Luis. “El cine en el Africa negra: Ousmane Sembène y los cineastas africanos posteriores.” Imágenes: Publicación Semestral de Teoría, Técnica, Critica y Educación (July-Dec. 1987): 27-30.

Tsabedze, Clara. African independence from francophone and anglophone voices : a comparative study of the post-independence novels by Ngugi and Sembène. New York: P. Lang, 1994.

Tübingen: Narr. “The Political Science of Sembène and Fall: Senghor Revisited.” By: Wylie, Hal. pp. 361-67 IN: Antoine, Régis (ed.); Carrefour de Cultures,1993.

Turfan, Barbara. “Africa Bibliography” by Hector Blackhurst. The Journal of African History 28. 1 (1987): 175-176.

Ukadike, N. Frank; Flora Gomes. “In Guinea-Bissau, Cinema Trickles down: An Interview with Flora Gomes.” Research in African Literatures Vol. 26, No. 3, African Cinema (Autumn, 1995): 179-185.


Vieyra, Paulin Soumanou. Ousmane Sembène cineaste; premiere période, 1962- 1971. Paris: Présence africaine, 1972.

Vieyra, Paulin Soumanou. Rev. of “The Cinema of Ousmane Sembène: A Pioneer of African Film.” by Françoise Pfaff. Canadian Journal of African Studies / Revue Canadienne des Études Africaines 20.1 (1986): 136-138.

Vignal, Daniel. “Sembène Ousmane nouvelliste.” Peuples Noirs-Peuples Africains 1981: 141-147.

Wallace, Karen Smyley. “A Search for Identity: The Alienated Female Persona in Some Francophone African Novels.” Rendezvous: Journal of Arts and Letters (Spring 1986): 32-38.

Waters, Harold A. “Nommo: African Fiction in French South of the Sahara.” by John D. Erickson. The French Review 54.3 (Feb. 1981): 460-461

Warwick, J. “Contes français et légendes canadiennes” by S. Cooper; R. Bolla; T. Christmas; G. H. King; A. Tobaly; W. Trenholm. “Témoins du monde français” by A. Therio; J. F. Burks. The Modern Language Journal 53. 3 (Mar. 1969): 217-218.

Weaver, Harold; Ousmane Sembène. ‘Interview with Ousmane Sembène.” Issue: A Journal of Opinion 2. 4 (Winter 1972): 58-64.

Weaver, Harold; Ousmane Sembène. “Interview with Ousmane Sembène.” Issue: A Journal of Opinion 10.1-2 (Spring 1980): 14-20.

Whitman, Daniel. Rev. of “L'imaginaire dans le roman africain d'expression française” by Roger Chemain. Research in African Literatures 19.3 (Autumn 1988): 398-400.

Wood, Carl. Rev. of “A Teacher's Guide to African Literature” by H. L. B. Moody; Elizabeth Gunner; Edward Finnegan.

Woodward, Servanne. “Prises de vue et plans: Les Premiers Films d'Ousmane” Degrés: Revue de Synthèse à Orientation Sémiologique, 91(Autumn 1997): f1-f13.

Wynchank, Anny. “Le Ciné-poing de Sembène Ousmane et Thierno Faty Sow” French Studies in Southern Africa 1999; 28: 133-50.

Yousaf, Nahem, “Sembene Ousmane and 'Rhetorical Film Forum.'” Wasafiri: Journal of Caribbean, African, Asian and Associated Literatures and Film 22 (Autumn 1995): 49-53.

Zacks, Stephen A. “The Theoretical Construction of African Cinema.” Research in African Literatures 26. 3 (Autumn 1995): 6-17.


#3: Commentary/ articles about specific works by Sembène

Abdurrahman, Umar. “Daughters of Dissident: Women as Warriors in Sembene Ousmane’s God’s Bits of Wood.” Ufahamu: African Studies Journal 30 (2004): 169-87.

Abety, Peter A. “Women Activists in Ayi Kwei Armah's ‘Two Thousand Seasons’ and Ousmane Sembène's ‘God's Bits of Wood’: A Study of the Role of Women in the Liberation Struggle.” Bridges: An African Journal of English Studies/Revue Africaine d'Etudes Anglaises (Dec. 1992): 19-33.

Aguiar, Marian. “Smoke on the Savannah: Traveling Modernity in Sembene Ousmane’s God’s Bits of Wood.” Modern Fiction Studies Summer 2003: 284-305.

Ahmad-Slavin, Fawzia. “Ousmane Sembène's ‘Les Bouts de bois de Dieu’: The Mechanics of Change” LitteRealite 1995; 7 (1-2): 49-61.

Aje, S.O. “Ecriture et institution sociale chez Zola, Tournier et Sembène.” (Le Mandat) Komparatistische Hefte 1983: 8; 25-37.

Aje, S.O. “L'Importance de l'écriture en tant qu'institution sociale dans L'Argent (Emile Zola), Le Roi des Aulnes (Michel Tournier) et Le Mandat (Ousmane Sembene).” Neohelicon 1989: 237-55.

Akudinobi, Jude G. “Durable Dreams: Dissent, Critique, and Creativity in Faat Kiné and Moolaadé.” Meridians: Feminism, Race, Transnationalism 6 (2006): 177-94.

Arowolo, E.O. “Problems of Translation in African Writings.” Présence Africaine: Revue Culturelle du Monde Noir 1982: 188-194. (Les Bouts de Boits de Dieu)

Bayo, Ogunjimi. “Ritual Archetypes: Ousmane's Aesthetic Medium in Xala.” Ufahamu: Journal of the African Activist Association 1985; 14 (3): 128-138.

Bernard, Rita. A Tangle of Modernism and Barbarity': Evelyn Waugh's Black Mischief. Durham, NC: Duke UP, 2007.

Berrian, Brenda F. Manu Dibango and Ceddo’s Transatlantic Soundscape. Bloomington: Indiana UP; Focus on African Films, 2004.

Berian, Brenda F. “Through Her Prism of Social and Political Contexts: Sembène's Female Characters in Tribal Scars.” Ngambika: Studies of Women in African Literature 1986.

Bleicher, Thomas. “Filmische Literatur und literarischer Film: Peter Handkes Erzählung 'Die linkshändige Frau' und Sembène Ousmanes Film Xala als Paradigmata neuer Kunstform.” Komparatistische Hefte 1982: 119-137.

Bolognesi, Valentina “ ‘Xala’ o l'universo maschile rovesciato.” Acme: Annali della Facoltà di Lettere e Filosofia dell'Università degli Studi di Milano 1998 Jan-Apr; 51 (1): 247-56.

Cancel, Robert. “Epic Element in Ceddo.” A Current Bibliography on African Affairs (CBAA) 1985-1986; 18 (1): 3-19.

Case, Frederick Ivor. “Littérature traditionnelle et forme Romanesque: Analyse du conte comme procédé littéraire romanesque.” Ethiopiques 1987: 32-56.

Case, F. “Worker's Movements: Revolution and Women's Consciousness in God's Bits of Wood.” Canadian Journal of African Studies/Revue Canadienne des Etudes Africaines 1981: 277-292.

Cham, Mbye Baboucar. “Art and Ideology in the Work of Sembène Ousmane and Hailé Gerima. Presence Africaine: Revue Culturelle du Monde Noir 1984; 129 (1): 79-91.

Cham, Mbye Baboucar. “Ousmane Sembène and the Aesthetics of African Oral Traditions.” Africana Journal: A Bibliographic Library Journal and Review Quarterly 1982: 24-40.

Chirol, Marie Magdeleine. “Le Langage du muet comme champ d'exploration du cinéma francophone: La Noire de ..., Wend Kuuni, Remparts d'argile.” Etudes Francophones, (1996 Winter) 11 (2): 93-107.

Cordell, Dennis D. “Ousmane Sembene's ‘God's Bits of Wood.’” African Novels in the Classroom 2000: 251-270.

Cnockaert, André. “Véhi-Closane, récit dans l’oeuvre de Sembène Ousmane.” Zaire-Afrique 1988: 109-121.

Dahlberg, Andrea. “Film as a Catalyst for Social Change: Ousmane Sembene’s Borom Sarat.” Bright Lights Film Journal (Nov. 2003).

Darbouze, Gilbert. “Les Bouts de bois de Dieu d'Ousmane Sembène: L'Esthétique naturaliste d'Emile Zola dans un roman sénégalais.” Excavatio: Emile Zola and Naturalism 1998; 11: 182-87.

Day, Patrick. “A Comparative Study of Crime and Punishment in Ousmane Sembène's Le Docker Noir and Albert Camus's L'Etranger.” Africa Today 52 (Spring 2006): 83-96.

Diouf, Mamadou. “History and Actuality in Ousmane Sembène's ‘Ceddo’ and Djibril Diop ‘Mambety's Hyenas’ ” 239-51 IN: Bakari, Imruch (ed.); Cham, Mbye B. (ed.); African Experiences of Cinema London,: British Film Institute; 1996: 276.

Ellovich, Risa. Rev. of “Black Girl [La Noire de...]” by Ousmane Sembene
American Anthropologist New Series, Vol. 79, No. 1 (Mar. 1977): 198-200.

Feuser, Willifried F. “Richard Wright’s Native Son and Ousmane Sembene’s Le Docker noir.” Komparatistische Hefte 1986: 103-116.

Garcia, Maria. “African Artisan: Ousmane Sembene Earns Acclaim with Drama of Mutilation and Protest.” Films Journal International (Dec. 2004): 22-24.

Gadjigo, Samba. The making of Moolaade [video]. New York: New Yorker Films, 2004.

Gourdeau, Jean-Pierre. Les bouts de bois de Dieu de Sembène Ousmane. 1984.

Gugler, Josef. “African Writing Projected onto the Screen: Sambizanga, Xala, and Kongi's Harvest.” African Studies Review (Apr. 1999) ; 42 (1): 79-14.

Gugler, Josef. Faction, Fact, and the Critic’s Responsibility: Camp de Thiaroye, Yaaba and The Gods Must Be Crazy. Bloomington: Indiana UP; Focus on African Films, 2004.

Harrow, Kenneth W. Camp de Thiaroye: “Who's That Hiding in Those Tanks, and How Come We Can't See Their Faces.” Iris, (Spring 1995) 18: 147-52.

Huannou, Adrien. “L'Islam et le christianisme face à la domination coloniale dans les Bouts de bois de Dieu.” Nouvelles du Sud 1986-7: 6; 41-48.

Harrow, Kenneth W. “Art and Ideology in ‘Les Bouts de bois de Dieu’: Realism's Artifices.” The French Review: Journal of the American Association of Teachers of French (Feb. 1989): 62 (3): 483-493.

Harrow, Kenneth W. The Failed Trickster. Bloomington: Indiana UP; Focus on African Films, 2004.

Harrow, Kenneth. “The Money Order: False Treasure or True Benefice.” Interdisciplinary Dimensions of African Literature. Washington, DC: Three Continents, 1985.

Harrow, Kenneth. “Sembène Ousmane's Xala: The Use of Film and Novel as Revolutionary Weapon.” Studies in Twentieth Century Literature (Spring 1980): 177-188

Ijere, Muriel. “La Condition feminine dans Xala de Sembène Ousmane.” Revista de Litterature & d’Esthétique Négro-Africaines 1988; 36-45.

Iyam, David Uru. “The Silent Revolutionaries: Ousmane Sembène's 'Emitai,' 'Xala,' and 'Ceddo'.” The African Studies Review 1986; 79-87.

Jones, A. James. “Fact and Fiction in God's Bits of Wood.” Research in African Literatures (Summer 2000) 31 (2): 117-31.

Jones, Eldred Durosimi. New Writing, new approaches: a review. 1982.

Langford, Rachael. “Locating Colonisation and Globalisation in Francophone African Film and Literature: Spatial Relations in Borom Sarret (1963), La Noire de ... (1965) and Cinéma (1997).” French Cultural Studies (Feb. 2005): 91-104.

Leahy, James. “Camp de Thiaroye.” Senses of Cinema: An Online Film Journal Devoted to the Serious and Eclectic Discussion of Cinema (Sept-Oct 2003): 28.

Lindfors, Bernth. “ Penetrating Xala” International Fiction Review 1997; 24 (1-2): 1-11.

Lynne, Thomas. “Community, Carnival, and the Colonial Legacy in Ousmane Sembene’s ‘La Noire de…’ ” Cincinnati Romance Review 2004: 23; 60-74.

Lynne, Thomas J. “Politics, Plunder and Postcolonial Tricksters: Ousmane Sembène's ‘Xala.” International Journal of Francophone Studies 2003; 6 (3): 183-95.

Lüsebrink, Hans-Jürgen. “Ousmane Sembène und das 'Sprachenproblem' in Senegal: Zur Wahrnehmung und Kodierung von Sprachgebrauch und Sprachkonflikten in Les Bouts de bois de Dieu” Hamburg: Buske; 1986: 203-222.

McCallum, Pamela. “Irony, Colonialism and Representation: The Case of Sembene Ousmane's ‘La Noire de.’ ” Mattoid 1998; 52-53,158-65.

Moore, David Chioni “Ousmane Sembène's ‘Les Bouts de bois de Dieu’ and the Question of Literary 'Realism'-African, European, or Otherwise.” Genre: Forms of Discourse and Culture (Spring-Summer 1995): 28 (1-2): 67-93.

Morganti, Nike. Guelwaar, l'orgoglio dell'Africa. Nigrizia: Fatti e Problemi del Mondo Nero, (Oct 1993) 111 (10): 57-61.

Mowitt, John “Sembène Ousmane's ‘Xala’: Postcoloniality and Foreign Film Languages.” Camera Obscura: A Journal of Feminism, Culture, and Media Studies (Jan-May 1993) 31: 73-95.


Mpoyi-Buatu, Th. “Ceddo de Sembène Ousmane et West Indies de Med Hondo.” Présence Africaine: Revue Culturelle du Monde Noir/Cultural Review of the Negro World 1981: 152-164.

Mulvey, Laura “‘Xala’, Ousmane Sembene (1974): The Carapace That Failed.” Camera Obscura: A Journal of Feminism, Culture, and Media Studies. (Jan-May 1993): 31; 49-71.

Murphy, David. “Fighting for the Homeland? The Second World War in the Films of Ousmane Sembene.” Esprit Créateur 47 (2007): 56-67.

Murphey, David. “La Danse et la parole: L'Exil et l'identité chez les Noirs de Marseille dans Banjo de Claude McKay et Le Docker noir d'Ousmane Sembene.” Canadian Review of Comparative Literature/Revue Canadienne de Littérature Comparée. (Sep. 2000): 27 (3); 462-79.

Mushengyezi, Aaron. “Reimaging Gender and African Tradition? Ousmane Sembène's Xala Revisited.” Africa Today Fall 2004: 47-62.

N’gom, M’baré. “L’Oralité filmique comme plateforme narrative chez Ousmane Sembène: Guelwaar.” CLA Journal (Mar. 2003): 408-24.

Ngugi, Njeri. “Presenting and (Mis)Representing History in Fiction Film: Sembène’s Camp de Thiaroye and Attenborough’s Cry Freedom.” Journal of African Cultural Studies (June 2003): 57-68.

Niang, Sada. “Character, Context, and Wolof Language: Mandabi.” Jump Cut: A Review of Contemporary Media 1996; 40: 55-61.

Niang, Sada. “Modes d'écriture dans L'Aventure ambiguë et ‘Xala.’” Revue Francophone. Spring 1993; 8 (1): 77-91.

Nzepa, Zacharie Petnkeu. Convergences des cultures d'Afrique et des Antilles à travers une lecture sémiotique de Faat Kine de Ousmane Sembène et de Sugar Cane Alley d'Euzhan Palcy. Internet-Zeitschrift für Kulturwissenschaften, July 2004.

Obielo-Okpala, Louis. “L'Islam dans l'oeuvre littéraire de Sembène Ousmane.” L'Afrique Litteraire 1989; 85: 14-24.

Ojo, S. Ade. “Le ‘Xala’ dans Xala de Sembène Ousmane.” Ethiopiques 1988: 185-204.

Ojo, S. Ade “Revolt, Violence and Duty in Ousmane Sembène's God's Bits of Wood.” Nigeria Magazine (July-Sept. 1985) 53 (3): 58-68.

Ojo, S. Ade. Rev. of “Sembène Ousmane's ‘God's Bits of Wood’” by Paul Ngigi Njoroge. Research in African Literatures 16. 4, Special Issue on West African Fiction (Winter 1985): 592-595.

Onyeoziri, Nne Gloria “Revisiting the 'Roman de la Désillusion': A Semiotic and Cultural Reading of Ousmane Sembène's ‘Xala.’” Francophone Post-Colonial Cultures. 2003:
102-13.

Opara, Chioma “The Emergence of the Female Self: The Liberating Pen in Mariama Ba's Une Si Longue Lettre and Sembene Ousmane's 'Lettres de France.’” Adebayo, Aduke (ed.); Feminism and Black Women's Creative Writing: Theory, Practice, and Criticism. 1996: 153-167.

Pallister, Janis L. “From ‘La Noire de. . .’ to ‘Milk and Honey’: Portraits of the Alienated African Woman.” Modern Language Studies 22. 4 (Autumn 1992): 76-87.

Panzacchi-Loimeir, Cornelia. Der Meister des Wortes und der Meister der Feder-Die Darstellung des Griots im francophonen westafrikanischen Roman. Frankfurt, Germany: Peter Lang, 1987.

Payne, Doug. “Instabilities: The Politics of Literary Form in Sembène's ‘The Last of the Empire.’” Journal of Commonwealth and Postcolonial Studies (Fall 1999): 6 (2): 106-25.

Peters, Jonathan A. “Aesthetics and Ideology in African Film: Ousmane Sembene’s Emitai.” Annual Sel. Papers of ALA: 9 1986: 69-75.

Peters, Jonathan A. “Sembène Ousmane as Griot: The Money-Order with White Genesis.” African Literature Today 1982: 88-103.

Pfaff, Françoise. “Myths, Traditions, and Colonialism in Ousmane Sembène's Emitai.” College Language Association Journal (Mar. 1981): 336-346.

Povey, John. Rev. of Ousmane Sembene’s “Xala” by Clive Wake. African Arts Vol. 10, No. 4 (Jul. 1977): 79-80.

Radithalo, Sam. “Beggar's Description: 'Xala,' the Prophetic Voice and the Post-Independent African State.” English in Africa (Oct. 2005):169-84.

Rahul, Hamid. “Introduction to Black Girl.” Senses of Cinema: An Online Film Journal Devoted to the Serious and Eclectic Discussion of Cinema. (Nov.-Dec. 2002); 23: (no pagination).

Reneau, Ingrid M. “Maimouna's Praisesongs: Modeling Nationhood in Sembene Ousmane's God's Bits of Wood.” Obsidian III: Literature in the African Diaspora (Fall/Winter 2004): 137-50.

Riesz, János. “Le dernier voyage du Négrier Sirius': Le Roman dans le roman ‘Le Docker Noir’ d'Ousmane Sembène” 179-96 Diop, Papa Samba (ed.); Sénégal-Forum: Littérature et Histoire. 1995: 267.

Rouxparis, Aas. “ Tableaux africains: Xala et Tableau ferraille.” French Review: Journal of the American Association of Teachers of French. (Mar. 2001) 74 (4): 742-56.

Saber, Ahmed; Ufahamu. “Ousmane Sembene's ‘Xala’: An Anti-Bourgeois Novel.” Journal of the African Activist Association. (Fall 1993); 21 (3): 16-26

Saber, Ahmed. “Political and Social Thought in the West African Novel: Mongo Béti’s Perpétue, Ousmane Sembene’s Xala, and Ayi Kewi Armah’s The Healers.” Dissertation Abstracts International (Mar. 1986): 2686A-2687A.

Sanusi, Ramonu. The Metamorphosis of Female Personae in Sembene Ousmane's Les Bouts de bois de Dieu. Halifax, NS: Dalhousie University, 2007.

Scharfman, Ronnie. “Fonction romanesque féminine: Rencontre de la culture et de la structure dans Les Bouts de bois de Dieu.” Ethiopiques 1983:134-144.

Smith, Sylvia Valene Hatcher. “Religion in Ousmane Sembène's Novels and Films.” Dissertation Abstracts International, Brown University. (May 1993) 53 (11): 3904A-05A.

Thomas, Dominic. “Intertextuality, Plagiarism, and Recycling Ousmane Sembene's Le Docker noir (Black Docker)” Research in African Literatures 37 (Spring 2006): 72-90.

Ugochukwu, Françoise. “Deux françaises en Afrique à l’époque coloniale: Etude comparée de Sembene Ousmane et de Guy des Cars.” (O Pays mon beau peuple). Peuples Noirs-Peuples Africaines 1986: 78-101.

Wallace, Karen Smyley. Les Bouts de bois de Dieu and Xala: A Comparative Analysis of Female Roles in Sembène's Novels. Papers in Romance (Autumn 1983): 89-96.

Wallace, Karen Smyley. “Women and Alienation: Analysis of the Works of Two Francophone African Novelists.” Ngambika: Studies of Women in African Literature. (No issue number or pagination)

Yoder, Carroll D. “Money: An Ironic Perspective in Sembene Ousmane’s the Money Order.” West Virginia University Philological Papers 1987: 113-119.