rose Challenges to women's rights in Senegal rose





·    Capital: Dakar;

·    Population: 12,853,259;

·       Population Growth Rate: 2.58%;

·       Degree of urbanization: urban population 42%, rural population 58%;

·       Age structure: 58% of population is under 20 years old (0-14 yrs.: 41.9%; 15-64 yrs.: 55.1% 65+ yrs.: 3%)
·       Gender structure: 58% women, 42% men;

·       Ethnic groups: Wolof 43.3%, Pular 23.8%, Serer 14.7%, Jola 3.7%, Mandinka 3%, Soninke 1.1%, European and Lebanese 1%, other 9.4%;

·       Religious groups: Muslim 92%, indigenous beliefs 6%, Christian 2% (mostly Roman Catholic);

·       Poverty rate: 32% of households are below the poverty line (75% of poor households are in rural areas and 58% of households in rural areas are poor, while 56% of the poor in urban areas are in Dakar);

·       Literacy: 39.3% (Male: 51.1%, Female: 29.2%);

·       Health Issues: Malaria is major killer in health terms (55%).




Events that influenced the life of women in Senegal

·       11th century: Islam entered the area of present day Senegal;
·       19th century: Senegalese Muslim brotherhoods fought against French and British colonization, but then decided to cooperate with the French in exchange for religious independence; the colonists established a seculat state;
·       1960s: Senegal gained its independence from France;
·       1970s: severe drought;
·       1980s: implementation of structural adjustment programs (policy changes implemented by the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the World Bank in developing countries, aimed at promoting economic growth, generating income and  paying the foreign debt of the country);
·       1994: devaluation of the CFA franc (increasing poverty: poor households compelled to lower food intake quantitatively and qualitatively; some medicine becomes inaccessible);
·       1999: Parliament of Senegal banned the tradition of female genital mutilation;
·       2000: Abdoulaye Wade becomes president of Senegal, ending 40 years of Socialist Party rule; he confirmed the secular basis of Senegalese Constitution and also promoted new liberalism regarding religion, which led to the revival of Islam.